The Royal Military College of Canada, Annual Militia Reports, For 1913.

APPENDIX ‘C’.

Kingston, Ont., 18th June, 1913.

  • From the Commandant Royal Military College.
  • To the Secretary Militia Council, Ottawa.

Sir,—

  • I have the honour to submit the following report on the Royal Military College for the year 1912-13.

 

                                                                                                                     STAFF.

  1. The following changes have taken place in the .staff of the College during the past year:— Major A. Bryant, Gloucester Regiment, succeeded Major Robertson, who had been transferred to Quebec; Major B. Gardiner, 53rd Sikhs, replaced Major Hopwood. Both these officers are employed in the General Staff Branch of the College.
  1. I regret to say that at the end of this term we shall lose the services of Major J. P. Shine, Royal Marine Light Infantry, and Major F. R. Sedgwick, Royal Artillery. Major Shine has held the appointment of Professor of Military Topography, Infantry Drill and Gymnastics for 5 years, during which time the standard attained in these subjects has improved in a marked manner, and he has done excellent work. Major Sedgwick has instructed the cadets not only in Tactics and Reconnaissance and Artillery, with its drill, but during his tenure here Military History has been added to the subjects taught by this Professor. He has had charge of the Workshops and was for some time also in charge of the Riding Establishment. He has been consequently very hard worked and has always responded most loyally as regards the extra duties which he has been called upon to carry out. I take this opportunity of publicly acknowledging and thanking these officers for the good work done by them.
  2. I have already called attention to the necessity for an increase in the staff of the College. The average strength of our classes exceeds 40, and at the present time there is only one instructor to assist the two Professors of Topography, Tactics and Reconnaissance, Military History, Administration, Law .and Artillery in the outdoor and indoor work of those subjects. It is to be remembered that the same staff is employed for seven months of the year with the Officers’ Long Course, in addition to the cadets. For the individual instruction, which is so important, we are undermanned. I again urge the necessity of adding at least one qualified subaltern to the staff for these subjects. I consider this to be the most important matter. Having regard to the present numbers I trust that the addition to the staff for other branches concerning which I have written to Headquarters may also be favourably considered. officers’ courses.
  3. For the Staff College course this year, only one candidate joined at the beginning of January and he will be examined next week, together with one candidate we prepared last year. There are at present 4 officers at Camberley, who have been successfully prepared here.
  4. Five officers took the Refresher Course which lasted three months. I would again beg that this Course should commence at the beginning of November and that its duration should be 5 months.
  5. For the Long Course 10 officers joined in November’. The result of extending this Course to 7 months has been most beneficial. The standard attained is naturally far more satisfactory and it is felt that officers qualifying can be confidently recommended for commissions in the Permanent Force.
  6. The practical portion of the Militia Staff Course was held in August last-Twenty-six officers attended and the work done was most creditable and satisfactory to ail concerned.
  7. We have all the facilities for working here during the time that the cadets are on leave, and it is hoped that the question of holding the Course elsewhere may not be considered.

 

Royal Military College of Canada cadets train with armstrong field guns c 1885; Stone Frigate.

Royal Military College of Canada cadets train with armstrong field guns c 1885; Stone Frigate.

                                                                 

                                                                                                RIDING ESTABLISHMENT.

  1. The riding of the cadets has greatly improved. The present graduating class is the first to have received the full benefit of the Riding Establishment, as it was not till 1911 that we possessed the necessary horses. Our graduates are now not only horsemen but have a good working knowledge of horsemastership.
  2. The necessity for a covered Riding School is urgent. We lose so much valuable time during the long winter months, when climatic conditions of necessity interfere with the regular course of instruction.
  3. As has already been reported, a fire broke out in the Riding Establishment on the night of the 29th of May. Fortunately the alarm was quickly given and we have every reason to be satisfied with the speed at which the Staff and Cadets turned out and may be thankful that the fire was extinguished without doing more damage than was done. Every enquiry has been made, but we have not been able to trace how the fire originated.

                                                                                                             STRENGTH.

  1. The number of cadets when the College opened last August was 124. During the year one cadet has been withdrawn by the request of his parents. As already reported we regret the loss of two of the most promising recruits by a canoe accident.

                                                                                                            DISCIPLINE.

  1. The conduct and discipline of the College has been very good. Battalion Sergt. Major Greenwood and the N. C. Officers of the graduating class have carried out their duties in a very satisfactory manner.

                                                                                                         EXAMINATIONS.

  1. The results of the examinations are very satisfactory in the senior class; 36 cadets obtained Diplomas and of these, 6 graduate with honours. Of the second class 3, and of the 3rd class 7 are required to repeat the year’s course.

                                                                                                            MUSKETRY.

  1. Our rifle shooting under Major Perreau has been maintained at a high standard. The possibility of carrying on practice during the winter months on the miniature ranges is of particular value now that our outside range has been closed for all ranges above 500 yard s. The lack of an outside range has prevented us entering for any of the competitions in which last year we were very successful. During the past 12 months our Musketry record is as follows:—
Royal Military College of Canada, 1913.

Royal Military College of Canada, 1913.

  1. Two cadets were selected to fire on the Sir Thomas Dowar Competition this year.
  2. We fired our match with revolver against Sandhurst last month and defeated them for the first time since the match was started, with 265 to 254.

                                                                                                                 SPORTS.

  1. We have held our own in the field of sport during the past year. We won the Intermediate Intercollegiate Rugby Championship, and were second in the Intercollegiate Harriers meeting, being a close second to Toronto University. In our Cricket tour we won all our matches.

                                                                                                       ACCOMMODATION.

  1. The new dormitory building and the new model and gun shed are in course of secretion. As I believed mentioned we urgently require a Riding School. The lack of quarters for the Staff and Subordinate Staff is a great disadvantage. The additional time that we would be spent among the cadets during recreation hours could be of benefit to the college. The plans for these additions already exist.
  2. Presumably the dormitory building will be will be ready for occupation within a few months. Even with our present numbers the lecture rooms, dinning room and recreation rooms are far too crowded. There were about 120 candidates for admission to the College at last month’s examination. Of these we cannot admit more than about 40. If we are to take advantage of this increasing demand for admission, it is essential that the extensions of the educational building should be commenced. Even under existing conditions we urgently need a library, a suitable draughting room and laboratory. Our dinning room is crowded and while our Officers’ Courses are in attendance we have to use the recreation room as a dinning room. The covered drill hall and skating rink has not yet been given to us.

 

                                                                                                           COMMISSIONS.

  1. The fallowing will be recommended for commissions:—

Imperial Commissions.

  • B.S.M  E.H. de L. Greenwood……Royal Engineers.
  • Corpl. G. H. Hay………………….Infantry.
  • L-Corpl. C. G. Carruthers…………Infantry.
  • C.S.M. R.S.P. MacIvor……………Indian Army.
  • Corpl. C. B. Cockburn……………Army Service Corps.
  • Gent. Cadet H.B.B. Butler………..Army Service Corps.

Canadian Permanent Force Commissions.

  • Gentlemen Cadet C. V. Bishop……….Royal Canadian Artillery.
  • …” “………” “… R. J. Leach…………..” “…… ” “…….” “…….
  • …” “………” “… B. M. J. Le Blane…… ” “…… ” “….Dragoons.
  • …” “………” “… C. P. Slater…………..” “…… ” “……” “…….

 

  1. The following are awarded diplomas:—

With honours:—

  • Gentleman Cadet W. B. McTaggart.
  • …..” “……” “…. R. S. P. Maclvor.
  • …..” “……” “…..S. R. Lovelace.
  • …..” “……” “…..A. H. Bostock.
  • …..” “……” “…..J. E. Mathews.
  • …..” “……” “…..F. J. G. Chadwick,

Diplomas of Graduation:—

  • …..” “……” “…. E. H. de L. Greenwood.
  • …..” “……” “…. C. B. Cockburn.
  • …..” “……” “…. W. B. Lawson.
  • …..” “……” “…. E. L. McQuaig.
  • …..” “……” “…. C. H. B. Garland.
  • …..” “……” “…. D. H. Storms.
  • …..” “……” “…. G. Blackstock.
  • …..” “……” “…. J. A. Turner.
  • …..” “……” “…. H. E. J. Vautelet.
  • …..” “……” “…. G. H. Hay.
  • …..” “……” “…. H. M. Teed
  • …..” “……” “…..G. L. Magann.
  • …..” “……” “…. J. K. M. Green.
  • …..” “……” “…. H. B. B. Butler.
  • …..” “……” “…. A. H. Paterson.
  • …..” “……” “…. J. H. Cantin.
  • …..” “……” “…. E. R. P. Armour.
  • …..” “……” “…. J. C. M. Morrow.
  • …..” “……” “…. G. B. Schwarts.
  • …..” “……” “…. C. R. Godwin.
  • …..” “……” “…. C. G. Carruthers.
  •  …..” “……” “…. H. C. Lefroy.
  • …..” “……” “…. J. F. E. Gendron.
  • …..” “……” “…. R. J. Leach.
  • …..” “……” “…. P. Holt.
  • …..” “……” “…. C. V. Bishop.
  • …..” “……” “…. C. Ryerson.
  • …..” “……” “…. C. P. Slater.
  • …..” “……” “…. J. Gait.
  • …..” “……” “…. B. M. J. LeBlanc.

 

Royal Military College of Canada, Reports 1913.

Royal Military College of Canada, Reports 1913.

Royal Military College of Canada, Reports 1913.

Royal Military College of Canada, Reports 1913.

 

                                                                                                         APPENDIX ‘D.’

                                               REPORT OF THE BOARD OF VISITORS, ROYAL MILITARY COLLEGE, 1913.

 Quebec, April 10th, 1913.

  • The Secretary, The Militia Council, Ottawa.

Sir,—I have the honour to forward herewith, the report of the meetings of the Board of Visitors, Royal Military College, held at Kingston, on the 25th, 26th, 27th and 28th March, last.

  • I have the honour to be, sir. Your obedient servant, ERNEST F. WURTELE, Lieut. Colonel, Chairman, Board of Visitors.

 

                                                                                                              REPORT.

The Board held a preliminary meeting at 4.00 p.m., on the 25th March, 1913, and assembled at the Royal Military College, Kingston, Ont., at 10.00 a.m., on the 26th idem and following days.

                                                                                                             PRESENT.

Chairman.—Lieut.-Colonel Ernest F. Wurtele, Commanding 15th Infantry Brigade.

Members.—The Right Reverend C. L. Worrell, Bishop of Nova Scotia; Hon’y. Lieut.-Colonel The Reverend Canon Dauth, Vice Rector, Laval University, Montreal; Lieut.-Colonel H. J. Lamb, Corps of Guides, and Lieutenant G. B. Hughes, Reserve of Officers.

Secretary.—Lieut.-Colonel J. S. Dunbar, Assistant-Adjutant-General, Militia Headquarters. Major General Colin MacKenzie, Chief of the General Staff was unavoidably unable to attend.

  • All the buildings and grounds were carefully inspected and the several departments of the institution enquired into by the Board, who beg to present the following report:—

                                                                                                  INSTRUCTIONAL STAFF.

  1. Major Bryant and Major Gardiner have replaced Major Robertson, transferred to the 5th Division, and Major Hopwood, who returned to India, at the conclusion of his year “on deputation,” on the General Staff.
  2. Four candidates were prepared for the Imperial Staff College, and all qualified well in all the military subjects, but one failed in French; the other three are now at Camberley.
  3. Twenty-six officers joined for the Militia Staff Course, held in August last.
  4. Ten officers joined at the beginning of November for the 7 months’ Long Course.
  5. The Board much regret that their recommendation of last year, that the Instructional Staff  be increased, has not been acted upon. As was then pointed out, additional instructors are urgently required, owing to the classes being so much larger than formerly.
  6. It was learned on enquiry, that the present Professor of Military History and Tactics, is also responsible for Artillery, theoretical and practical. Organization and Administration, and Military Law, and is also in charge of the Workshops. At present he has only one assistant, who is also assistant to the Professor of Military Topography. When it is borne in mind that, in addition to this, these two officers also instruct the officers attending the seven months Long Course, the fact is apparent that very little, if any, individual instruction can be given the cadets, who now average over 40 in each class. The Board last year referred to the fact that at West Point there was an Instructional Staff of 106 for about 500 cadets, and would now point out that at Woolwich, there are 30 officers taking part in the instruction which is attempted to be carried out at the Royal Military College by the two professors, before mentioned, and one assistant. It is, therefore, obvious that at least one additional instructor should be provided before next term.
  7. An Assistant Professor in French should also be appointed, for but little practical individual instruction can be given in this important subject to a class of over 40, by one professor, who has, also, to instruct the Staff College Candidates.
  8. A second Instructor in Mathematics has been repeatedly asked for by the Professor. Attention is respectfully drawn to the fact that this subject is one which a large proportion of the cadets find difficult and they therefore require individual and full assistance; if not given this assistance, it frequently means that in order to avoid failure, an undue proportion of time is devoted to it at the expense of other subjects.

 

Royal Military College of Canada cadets drill in parade square, Stone Frigate 1880s.

Royal Military College of Canada cadets drill in parade square, Stone Frigate 1880s.

 

                                                                                                       SUBORDINATE STAFF.

  1. The members of the Subordinate Staff were well reported upon by the Commandant.

                                                                                                   ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS.

  1. One hundred and twenty-four cadets reported at the beginning of the term; one has since been granted his discharge, at the request of his parents.

                                                                                                               ATTENDANCE.

  1. Fifty-nine candidates competed at the Entrance Examinations last May; of these 47 qualified, but only 40 could be admitted to the College for want of accommodation. One hundred and fourteen have applied to undergo the examinations in May, 1913. The Board recommend that German be introduced as one of the voluntary subjects at the Entrance Examinations, with a higher minimum than that now required for Latin, but not as high as French, and that later on it be included in the syllabus of the College.

                                                                                                  SYLLABUS OF INSTRUCTION.

  1. The syllabus of instruction is the same as last year, except that a little more Military History has been introduced and some changes made in the Civil Engineering Course.
  2. The Board again invite attention to the suggestion already made by the Commandant, that an alternative course be given to the third year cadets, one for those who intend taking up the profession of Civil Engineering, and the other for those who propose entering the Service. This cannot be inaugurated without an increase of Staff.

 

Royal Military College of Canada, Reports 1913.

Royal Military College of Canada, Reports 1913.

 

  1. The Board again suggest that, if possible, Political History be introduced, and that the present system of having outside examiners for the non-military subjects, be done away with. It is also desirable that the 1st class be instructed in Sword Drill.

                                                                                                             COMMISSIONS.

  1. Four of last year’s graduates received commissions in the Imperial Army, and ten in the Permanent Force.

                                                                                                                PERSONNEL.

  1. Half of the 1st class were seen at Artillery Drill in the Old Gun Shed, the weather not permitting of any out-door parades. The other half of the 1st class and the 2nd class (some 53 cadets) gave a most interesting exhibition of “free” gymnastics” and “vaulting the horse,” the standard and system of training of which cannot be excelled. One-half of the 3rd class were inspected at work on the miniature Rifle Range, where some very good shooting was witnessed, and the balance of this class in the Workshops. The following table shows the total physical increases in measurements of the cadets at the date of the Board’s visit:
Royal Military College of Canada, Reports 1913.

Royal Military College of Canada, Reports 1913.

 

                                                                                                              EQUITATION.

  1. The Board beg to point out, for the third year in succession that without a covered Riding School a systematic course of instruction in equitation cannot be carried out, and again most strongly recommend that one be built on this site which is available within the College grounds. The Riding Master should also be provided with quarters in the inclosure.

                                                                                                               DISCIPLINE.

  1. The Commandant report that that the discipline of the cadets had been most satisfactory.

                                                                                                                 MESSING.

  1. The Messing arrangements which are still carried out by the Canadian Permanent Army Service Corps, were reported as being generally satisfactory. Some complaints were made by the cadets, but, on investigation, were found to be more as regard to the cooking and service rather than the quality of the food, which appeared to be good. The Board learned that it has been proposed by the Officers Administrating the Canadian Permanent Army Service Corps, to ask that an extra 10c per day per cadet be added to the present rate allowance (50c per head), but they are of opinion that a Speacial Board should first be appointed to enquire into the cause leading up to the necessity for such an increase.

                                                                                                                CLOTHING.

  1. Owing to a change of contractors during the year there has been great delay in the issue of clothing, several of the last joined cadets not having been issued with more then half their Kit at Christmas, and many of them are still without tunies. The reason given by the contractors was the difficulty they experienced in procuring the necessary uniform cloths used at the College, but this hardly seems to account for so long a delay.
  2. The Board regret that the blue serges had not been retained as an issue, although the cadets may procure them on repayment with their parents’ consent.
  3. The tan boots issued from stores are good, but at the date of the Board’s visit there was no contract for black boots. The Firm to whom the contract was expected to be given asked $7.00 and $6.50 per pair, but the cadets prefer to buy them out of their own pockets from the former contractor. It was understood that Messrs. Sutherland Brothers, if awarded the contract, will make similar boots to those made by their predecessors.

                                                                                                               MUSKETRY.

  1. Very good work continues to be done on the Miniature Rifle Range, which, now that the “Solano” Target has been installed, is complete.-
  2. The College team won the rifle match against Sandhurst, for the first time. Its team also came 8th in the second series of the Canadian Rifle League Competition, and 5th in the Gallery Rifle Competition. Spoon Competitions twice monthly have been inaugurated from November to April, and Inter-Company “Solano” Target Battle Practice Competitions have been held, as also Section leading on the Hill Siffken landscape targets. Competitions with .22 rifles were held during February and March for spoons presented by the Chairman of the Board.

     

Royal Military College of Canada, Reports 1913.

Royal Military College of Canada, Reports 1913.

 

  1. Owing to the construction of the new dormitory building, the cadets are without rifle range, and the Board again recommend that one be built within the College grounds. It is regretted that the proposed range along the Cataraqui has not been approved, as the board do not consider would have been any more dangerous than the old one, which was used for so many years without any accident having occurred. The Barriefield ranges are so far from the College, that the time which be lost in going to and returning from them puts them out of question. The Board are of the opinion that the danger of the proposed range along the Cataraqui has been over-estimated by some, and that as it is so important to have an outdoor range within the College grounds, they recommend that the matter be again considered.

                                                                                                             RECREATION.

  1. The Board feel that they must again record their disappointment at the non- construction of the covered skating rink and drill hall.
  2. The new boat-houses and wharves are a great improvement, but the College is still without any suitable row-boats.
  3. The College has again maintained its place in athletic competitions during the year, having won the Intermediate Inter-Collegiate Championship at Football and the Intermediate Championship at Hockey. The Royal Military College also won all their Cricket Matches but one, and were second in the Long Distance run, being beaten by Toronto.

 

Royal Military College, Fort Frederick, Kingston, Ont. 1910.

Royal Military College, Fort Frederick, Kingston, Ont. 1910.

 

                                                                                                 HEALTH AND SANITATION.

  1. The health of the cadets has been good, and at the date of the Board’s visit, there were no cases of sickness.
  2. A Forbes Sterilizing Plant is now being installed in the College for the supply of water in the educational and old dormitory blocks. The Board recommend that one be also installed in the new Dormitory Building.
  3. The Board again draw attention to the unsatisfactory and inadequate ventilation of the class rooms during the winter months. All the class rooms were visited by the Board when this was amply apparent in many of them, due chiefly to their being over-crowded. The bathrooms and lavatories were clean, and in good order.

                                                                                                           HOSPITAL.

  1. The hospital was found fully equipped for any emergency, and very clean.

                                                                                                            WORKSHOP.

  1. The workshop was found in good running order.

                                                                                                             KITCHENS.

  1. The kitchens and pantries in the main building were tidy and well kept. It would, however, be more satisfactory if the chief cook’s help were men from the Canadian Permanent Army Service Corps, instead of civilians.

                                                                                                              LIBRARY.

  1. The Board note with regret that no action appears to have been taken on their recommendation of last year that the library be enlarged, and a map room provided. There is still a shortage of text books on Chemistry and Physics.

                                                                                                               OFFICES.

  1. The offices of the Acting Paymaster and of the Quartermaster were tidy and in good order.

                                                                                                     LANDS AND GROUNDS.

  1. The concrete walks have been continued along the front road of the outer enclosure. It would be a still greater improvement if they were also built up to the residences of the Officers of the Staff living within the grounds. The weather did not permit of a close inspection of the tennis courts nor of the grounds near the new stables and grooms’ quarters.

                                                                                                            HOLIDAYS.

  1. The holidays are the same as formerly, viz., two weeks at Christmas, four days at Easter, and a little over two months in summer.

                                                                                                            GUN SHED.

  1. The Board were pleased to observe that the excavation for the new Model and Gun Shed had been commenced.

                                                                                                       GUN PRACTICE.

  1. The Board were given to understand that none of the cadets could do any gun practice at the College; they, therefore, again recommend that arrangements be made for the 1st. Class Cadets to attend Petawawa Camp, when the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery and other artillery units are in camp there. The benefit to be derived there from would be inestimable.

                                                                                                      ACCOMMODATION.

  1. The Board feel that they are compelled to express their keen disappointment at no steps having been taken to afford increased accommodation in the educational building. This has been pointed out by successive boards for some years past as being of paramount importance, but nothing has been done on their recommendations. Although the new dormitory building will afford increased sleeping accommodation, it will not enable a larger number of cadets to attend the College. Not only is the dining-room so overcrowded that from 15 to 20 officers are required to take their meals in the 2nd Class recreation room, but, as already pointed out several times by the Board of Visitors, a draughting-room, library, laboratory and general lecture rooms are very urgently required, if the College is to meet the increasing demands made upon it by prospective Cadets and Officers of the Active Militia. The Board, therefore, respectfully repeat their strong recommendations of the past four years, that a new educational block be constructed without delay, and that a block of officers’ quarters be built within the College grounds, both of which are an absolute necessity. Owing to the lack of officers’ quarters, all officers attending courses, as well as the whole of the staff, except four officers, have to live a couple of miles from the College, instead of in the enclosure. The Board confidently expect that early provision for the construction of these buildings will be made in the estimates.

                                                                                                       PAY AND PENSIONS.

  1. There are ever increasing claims on the Commandant as such, and the Board again strongly recommend that an entertaining allowance be made him.
  2. In last year’s report, the Board referred in plain terms to the urgent necessity of some provision being made as regards the pay and pension or retiring allowance to the members of the Civil Staff, and made several suggestions, but regret to learn that no decision has been come to on the matter. As provision has been made for the granting of pensions or retiring allowances to members of almost all special services, such as Judges, Railway Servants and others, to Professors of most of the Universities in England, and other countries, and is now a generally accepted principle the world over, the Board beg to repeat their recommendations of last year, and hope that the desired action will be taken at the earliest possible date; otherwise, they feel that the retirement of any of the civil professors under existing conditions would cause hardship, and that the best men available to succeed them could not be obtained.
  3. The Board were pleased to learn that, as recommended last year, the Militia Pension Act of 1901, was to be amended this Session, so as to provide that the time spent at the College by cadets, shall count towards pension, should they become Officers of the Permanent Staff or Permanent Force of Canada.

                                                                                                           REGULATIONS.

  1. The Board suggest that paragraph 25 of the Regulations for the Royal Military College be amended so as to provide for the retirement of but one member annually instead of two.

                                                                                                               VISITORS.

  1. At the close of last term, His Royal Highness The Governor-General inspected the cadets and presented the diplomas and prizes to the successful candidates. His Royal Highness also inspected them informally on the 14th February last. In addition to seeing them on the Miniature Rifle Range, at Gymnastics and in the Workshops, he visited the class-rooms during lecture hours.
  2. Early in February, Lieutenant Jermain of the Naval College at Halifax, visited the College, to discuss details in connection with the system of Physical Training.

                                                                                TENURE OF COMMANDANT’S APPOINTMENT.

  1. The Chairman and Members of the Board, being aware that Colonel Crowe’s tenure of appointment, as Commandant, expires in October next, desire to record their high appreciation of his most efficient services as such, which have contributed in so marked a degree to the ever increasing efficiency of the College. They would, therefore, respectfully recommend that an extension of at least one year be given him.
  2. The thanks of the Chairman and Members of the Board are due the Commandant, Staff Adjutant and Members of the Staff for their unfailing courtesy and the valuable assistance given them during their inspection of the College.

 

  • ERNEST F. WURTELE, Lieut-Colonel, Commanding 10th Infantry Brigade, Chairman, Board of Visitors.
  • CLARE L. NOVA SCOTIA.
  • G. DAUTH, Hon. Lt.-Colonel,Vice Rector, Laval University, Montreal.
  • H. J. LAMB, Lieut.-Colonel, Corps of Guides.
  • G. B. HUGHES, Lieutenant. Reserve of Officers.
  • J. S. DUNBAR, Lieut.-Colonel, Assistant Adjutant-General, Secretary Board of Visitors.

 

Spañard

 

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