Canada’s Annual Militia Council Report Year Ending March 31st, 1914.

                                              ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MILITIA COUNCIL, Year Ending March 31, 1914.


  • The Militia Council present, herewith, their report on the work of the ‘Militia during the twelve months ending March 31, 1914.


                                                                                                            MILITIA POLICY.     

Since the presentation of the report for the year ending March 31, 1913, there has been no alteration in the military policy of the department.



In the general scheme of defence, no change of importance has been introduced; but details, including the allotment of units, have been revised and corrected up to date.

With regard to field formations, gradual effect is being given to the arrangements proposed by Sir John French and subsequently endorsed by Sir Ian Hamilton. In Eastern Canada, six divisions and four mounted brigades are in process of formation; and in the West (where the divisional system has not yet been applied) three mounted brigades and three brigades of infantry have been organized. With regard to fixed defences, Halifax is increasing both in commercial and in strategically importance. New docks and railway terminals are under construction; and to some extent they have deranged the system of defence, which will require readjustment. Below Quebec there is work that needs to be taken in hand; but it will have to stand over until other more urgent services have been completed elsewhere. At Esquimalt, defence arrangements are very far from perfect; but it has been decided, before incurring more than normal expenditure on the up-keep of the fortress, to await the formulation of a definite policy in regard to the defence of the Pacific Coast.


                                                                                           INTERDEPARTMENTAL COMMITTEE.

During the year the Interdepartmental Committee has continued to co-ordinate the work of the Militia Department and the Department of the Naval Service, particularly when dealing with questions which relate to the subject of coast defence.


                                                                                                   MILITARY INTELLIGENCE.

There has been circulated and tiled for reference a great deal of useful information, in the collection of which very valuable assistance has been rendered by officers of the Corps of Guides; and of certain areas and districts of special importance from the standpoint of national defence, systematic reconnaissances have been started or arranged.



                                                                                                       GENERAL REMARKS.

The following is a brief description of the training carried out by the Canadian Militia during the season of 1913. The report of the late Inspector General on the results of that training is printed herein as Appendix F page 82; and the numbers of officers and men of the Active (Non-Permanent) Militia who were actually trained, are tabulated in Appendix A, statement No. 3, page 44. The training was carried out in accordance with a memorandum “Instruction for Training, 1913,” issued early in the year for the guidance of instructors and of officers and non-commissioned officers of the Active (Non-Permanent) Militia. The instructions were practically the same as those issued in 1912.

This year all arms trained for twelve days, except the artillery and infantry (city corps) which trained for sixteen days. Owing to the cost of transport it was found impracticable to bring artillery and engineer units from the Maritime Provinces to Petawawa as was done last year, and they trained instead at Sussex and Aldershot. Additional manoeuvre areas, suitable for combined training, are much needed. The cost of bringing units to Petawawa is excessive; yet, in Eastern Canada, it is the only manoeuvre area where there is sufficient room for the training of all arms, and it is the only artillery practice ground which is at present available. Instructors from the Permanent Force were provided on the following scale (so far as the numbers available would permit) : One officer to each cavalry, artillery, or infantry brigade; one non-commissioned officer to each cavalry regiment, battery of artillery, or infantry battalion. Owing to the shortness of time and the large proportion of recruits who attend the annual camps, but little field training is possible, the greater portion of the period available being of necessity allotted to work of a more elementary description.


                                                                                                        PERMANENT FORCE.

With the exception of batteries of horse and heavy artillery, which trained at Petawawa, all units of the Permanent Force carried out training in their respective areas, under arrangements made by divisional and district commanders. No. 5 Company, Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery, was employed on duty in aid of the civil power at Nanaimo, B.C., from August 13, 1913, to January 19, 1914, in consequence of which this unit was unable to carry out gun practice at Esquimalt.


                                                                                     ACTIVE (NON-PERMANENT) MILITIA.


With the exception of one mounted brigade, which trained at Petawawa, cavalry units carried out twelve days’ training in their respective areas at the authorized camps of instruction.


Field and Heavy.—Batteries carried out training and gun practice at the following stations:—


  • Seven brigades. Canadian Field Artillery.
  • One battery, Canadian Field Artillery.


  • Three batteries, Canadian Field Artillery.


  • One battery, Canadian Field Artillery.

Other units carried out training- partly in camp and partly at local headquarters, as below, and sent details for gun practice to Petawawa:—

  • Two brigades, Canadian Field Artillery………Camp Aldershot, H.S.
  • One brigade, Canadian Field Artillery………. Camp Sussex, N.B.
  • Two heavy brigades………………………….. Local Headquarters….
  • One heavy battery…………………………………”……..”……….
  • One regiment, Canadian Garrison Artillery, ………”……..”……….
  • (movable armament),………………………………”……..”……….


The artillery training and practice camp at Petawawa was held during the months of June and July; and the results were satisfactory, having regard to the shortness of time available. Great keenness was displayed by all ranks, and general improvement was noticeable. The standard of efficiency attained by batteries which trained at local headquarters and only sent detachments for gun practice to Petawawa, was not quite satisfactory; the difference between them and the batteries which trained for the full period at Petawawa was very marked. To enable them to acquire knowledge of the fire-power of artillery, a few selected officers of other arms of the service were permitted to attend the artillery practice camp at Petawawa. The general report on gun practice, including general and detailed criticisms by Commandants of the Royal Schools of Artillery, has been published in pamphlet form and issued to all concerned.


Coast Defence.—Fruits carried out gun practice at Halifax or Esquimalt as below, in addition to training at local headquarters:—

  • Halifax.—Two regiments, Canadian Garrison Artillery (7 days).
  • Esquimalt.—One regiment, Canadian Garrison Artillery (5 days).

Specialists received one week’s additional training, and derived much benefit There from; although in some cases the full number authorized did not attend.

Siege Artillery.—The two siege companies carried out training and gun practice at Halifax.



Engineer training, generally speaking, was efficiently performed; all ranks were very keen; and the practice (commoner than it used to be) of working in combination with other arms is found to be mutually advantageous. The instructors provided by the Permanent Force performed their duties in a satisfactory manner. Their work consisted of instruct inn in field works, engineer drill, equitation, cable and wireless telegraphy. One instructor was allotted to each unit. Engineer units require instruction during the winter months to enable them to turn out specialists for field training. In order that the best results may be obtained, telegraph operators, engine drivers and electricians must be proficient before going into camp; and, with that object in view, schools of instruction, conducted by the Royal Canadian Engineers, are held during the winter season.

Troops and companies trained at the under mentioned camps:—

  • 1st Field Troop, Canadian Engineers…………………Petawawa.
  • 3rd…”……”….……”………..”……………………………Sewell.
  • 1st (Brighton) Field Company, Canadian Engineers……..Sussex.
  • 2nd Field Company, Canadian Engineers…………………Niagara.
  • 3rd…”……”….…………”………..”……………………Petawawa.
  • 4th…”……”….…………”………..”……………………Petawawa.
  • 5th…”……”….…………”………..”……………………Barriefield.
  • 6th…”……”….…………”………..”……………North Vancouver.
  • 7th …”……”….………..”………..”…………………… Petawawa.


Corps of Guides.

Detachments of two sections each were trained in the 1st, 4th, 5th and 6th Divisional Areas, and in Military Districts Nos. 11 and 13. In the 2nd Divisional Area a complete company went into camp; in Military District No. 10, a detachment of one section. In the 4th Divisional Area a reconnaissance ride was carried out in the vicinity of lake Champlain, the period of training being completed in Farnham Camp; and in the 5th Divisional Area a reconnaissance ride took place in the Chaudiere valley. With the foregoing exceptions, the whole period of training was spent in camp. A total of 217, all ranks, including 47 officers, were trained; and, in addition, five officers attended courses of instruction or carried out duties of a special nature. Infantry Rural regiments trained as usual. In the case of city corps, the following statement shows the training they performed in camp. The number of days includes one day “marching in” and one day ”marching out” and, in most cases, a Sunday.


Canada’s “Active Militia” Annual Militia Council Report Year Ending March 31st, 1914. 1.

Canada’s “Active Militia” Annual Militia Council Report Year Ending March 31st, 1914. 1.


                                                                                                           Army Service Corps.

Army Service Corps companies trained in their respective areas. In camp, they are required to assist in administrative (supply and transport) duties; and it is difficult, in the short time available, to fit them for the work which, as mobile field units, they would be required to perform on .active service.


                                                                                                             Medical Services.

Field ambulances trained with their respective divisions; cavalry field ambulances with their respective mounted brigades. Medical units from the 2nd and 4th Divisional Areas did particularly good work in conjunction with other troops. The prizes offered by the Association of Officers of the Medical Services act as powerful incentives towards the attainment of efficiency. A number of regiments failed to meet requirements so far as their stretcher bearers were concerned; but the coming season, it is hoped, will show an improvement in this respect.



During the season of 1913, training was carried out along the usual lines; interest in musketry has been well maintained, and the results on the whole are neon raging. By this time the necessity for preliminary instruction is generally recognized; and in the camps, as well as at regimental headquarters, conditions are improving. Interest was stimulated by awarding individual prizes of $3 and $2 respectively to the best and second best shot in each squadron and company. As in other years, the large percentage of recruits requiring elementary instruction prevented anything in the nature of advanced training. In most of the camps there was no range practice at distances beyond 200 yards. This is unsatisfactory; but unless the period of training is extended, and until more ranges are available, it will be hard to raise the standard of efficiency. During the year, target practice rods have been added to the equipment, and have been found most useful in the training of recruits. Increased target accommodation is urgently required at most of the camps of instruction—particularly at Sussex, Levis, Niagara, London, and Calgary; and at each of the last two places the distance of the ranges from the camp entails the loss of a great deal of valuable time.


Post Card 1910 The 5th Regiment Royal Highlanders of Canada aka Black Watch.

Post Card 1910 The 5th Regiment Royal Highlanders of Canada aka Black Watch.


In addition to the above, more targets are required at Halifax and Montreal; while the means of transportation to the ranges at Winnipeg are so inconvenient as to discourage a large number of the local militiamen from attending. On the other hand, shooting with gallery or *22 ammunition is becoming increasingly popular; and the erection of armouries, affording facilities for indoor target practice, will have a good effect. Provision has been made for 1914-15 whereby recruits in the first year of training may qualify for efficiency pay on indoor ranges. This concession, it is hoped, will increase the percentage of men exercised in musketry, a percentage which in the case of units training at local headquarters, is often far too low. The value of landscape targets is gradually being better understood; and from their more extended use, good results may be anticipated. During 1912-13, exclusive of the Permanent Force, 26,168 men were exercised in musketry—a total which in 1913-14 has been raised to 31,661. Record attendances at the meetings of the Provincial and Dominion Rifle Associations go to prove that interest in rifle shooting is increasing.


Sixty-two rifle associations (military and civilian) were organized during the year, and 78 were disbanded—a decrease of 16; but there has been an increase in membership of 308. The figures for March 31, 1914, were:—

Rifle Associations……..Number…….Membership.

  • Military…………166………….24,903.
  • Civilian…………417………….23,884.
  • Total……………583………….48,787.



At the annual camps the Canadian Signal Corps, with few exceptions, proved its value, not only by providing means of inter-communication but by furnishing assistant instructors for the Cavalry, Artillery, and Infantry. The sections of the Canadian Signal Corps most to he commended are fin order of merit the following:—

  • No. 6 Signal Company, No. 2 Section, St. John, N.B.
  • No. 3 Signal Company, No. 3 Section, Ottawa. Ont.
  • No. 11 Independent Section, Victoria. B.C.
  • No. 6 Signal Company, No. 4 Section. Charlottetown, P.E.I.

As to regimental signallers, good progress has been made; especially in the case of rural corps which, as regards annual inspections in signalling, are now on the same footing as city corps. Regimental officers are taking an increased amount of interest in the subject, with the result that their signalling sections are more complete, more carefully selected, more intelligently trained; and, with the co-operation of divisional and district commanders, still further improvement may be expected. In the Cavalry, good work has been done, the following regiments deserving special mention: 31st British Columbia Horse, 19th Alberta Dragoons, 5th Princess Louise Dragoon Guards. 30th British Columbia Horse, 4th Hussars.

In the Artillery, as a whole, there has been a marked improvement, but there are battery commanders who still exercise too little care in the selection of their signallers. In the Infantry, the results obtained are very encouraging. The following are the regiments (arranged in order of merit) which have most distinguished themselves:—

  • 21st Essex Fusiliers.
  • 59th Stormont and Glengarry Regiment.
  • 72nd Seaforth Highlanders of Canada
  • 22nd Oxford Rifles.
  • 77th Wentworth Regiment.
  • 63rd Halifax Rifles.
  • 82nd Abegweit Light Infantry.
  • 38th Dufferin Rifles of Canada.
  • 91st Canadian Highlanders.
  • 13th Royal Regiment.


Canada’s “Active Militia” Annual Militia Council Report Year Ending March 31st, 1914. 2

Canada’s “Active Militia” Annual Militia Council Report Year Ending March 31st, 1914. 2




Instruction in England—

The following officers of the Permanent Force attended Instructional Courses in England:—

Staff College

  • Major E. de B. Panet, Royal Canadian Artillery.

    Captain Birchall, Royal Canadian Regiment, Ca., 1910-14 '.

    Captain Birchall, Royal Canadian Regiment, Ca., 1910-14 ‘.

  • Captain F. S. Morrison, Royal Canadian Dragoons.
  • ” J. H. MacBrien, Royal Canadian Regiment.
  • ” A. H. Borden, Royal Canadian Regiment.
  • ” J. S. Brown, Royal Canadian Regiment.


Ordnance College

  • Lieutenant E. J. Renaud, Canadian Ordnance Corps.


Gunnery Staff Course—

  • Captain W. H. P. Elkins, Royal Canadian Artillery.
  • ” G. S. Browne, Royal Canadian Artillery.
  • Lieutenant H. R. N. Cobbett, Royal Canadian Artillery.

School of Military Engineering—

  • Lieutenant A. G. Lawson, Royal Canadian Engineers.
  • ” K. Stuart, Royal Canadian Engineers.
  • ” F. R. Henshaw, Royal Canadian Engineers.
  • ” G. H. Shaw, Royal Canadian Engineers.
  • ” W. M. Miller, Royal Canadian Engineers.
  • ” F. M. Hutchinson, Royal Canadian Engineers.
  • ” J. P. Edwards, Royal Canadian Engineers.
  • ” D. H. Williams, Royal Canadian Engineers.
  • ” H. St. G. Bond, Royal Canadian Engineers.



  • Lieut-Colonel A. C. Macdonell, D.S.O., Lord Strathcona’s Horse (R.C.)
  • Captain W. T. Russell, Lord Strathcona’s Horse, (R.C.)
  • Major H. T. Hughes, Royal Canadian Engineers.
  • Lieutenant A. G. Lawson, Royal Canadian Engineers.
  • ” K. Stuart, Royal Canadian Engineers.
  • ” F. R. Henshaw, Royal Canadian Engineers.


Officers’ Long Course—

Ten officers attended at the Royal Military College the Long Course (7 months) which terminated in May, 1913, and the following received certificates:—

  • Captain D. C. Davis, 23rd Alberta Bangers.
  • Lieut. J. A. Critchley, 15th Light Horse.
  • ” H. R. Hendy, 9th Battery, Canadian Field Artillery.
  • ” G. L. P. Grant-Suttie, 36th Regiment.
  • ” A. H. W. Landon, 53rd Regiment.
  • ” G. E. Franeklyn, 66th Regiment.

Five of them have since been granted commissions in the Permanent Force. There were three officers attending the Long Course in progress at the end of the fiscal year.


Militia Staff Course—

Twenty-one officers, all of whom had previously passed in the theoretical portion, successfully completed the practical portion of the Course in August, 1913—sixteen at the Royal Military College and five at Calgary. Lectures in the theoretical portion of the Course were given at various centres during the winter of 1913-14. Eighty-three officers underwent instruction; seventy-two attended the examination; and forty-four passed.


Artillery Staff Course—

The Artillery Staff Course (1913), was attended by four officers of the Permanent Force and one officer of the Active (non-permanent) Militia. One officer (of the Permanent Force) is attending the Course which is now in progress.


Preparatory Course for the Staff College

This Course is held at the Royal Military College, Kingston, to prepare candidates for the Staff College entrance examination. In 1913, it was attended by two officers (one of whom, Captain J. S. Brown, Royal Canadian Regiment, was admitted to the Staff College in January, 1914); and it is now being attended by two more prospective competitors—Major C. H. Hill, Royal Canadian Regiment and Captain H. C. Greer, Canadian Permanent Army Service Corps.


Refresher Course—Permanent Force—

The under mentioned officers went through this year’s Refresher Course, held at the Royal Military College, Kingston, in conjunction with the Preparatory Course for the Staff College.

  • Major A. C. S. Hamilton-Gray, Royal Canadian Regiment.
  • ” A. H. Powell, Permanent Staff.
  • ” W. T. Lawless, Permanent Staff.
  • ” D. D. Young, Royal Canadian Dragoons.
  • Captain F. L. Cartwright, D.S.O., Lord Strathcona’s Horse, (R.C.)


Refresher Courses—Active (non-permanent) Militia—

The object of these Courses, which are held at the various Permanent Schools of Instruction, is to afford cavalry, artillery, and infantry field officers, also brigade majors and adjutants, an opportunity of bringing themselves up to date before the opening of the camps of instruction. Twenty-two officers availed themselves of the opportunity and attended for a period of one week.


Canada's Militia The mayor escorts A Battery R.C.H.A. to Renfrew 1909.1

Canada’s Militia The mayor escorts A Battery R.C.H.A. to Renfrew 1909.1




Promotion Examinations—Permanent Staff and Permanent Force.—

The examination of officers in the practical subjects required for promotion was carried out under divisional or district arrangements. The semi-annual written examinations were held, as usual, in May and December; and forty-five candidates presented themselves for examination in one or more subjects or sub-heads.


Literary Examination—

Two candidates presented themselves for the Literary Examination, held in May, to qualify for appointment to the Permanent Force, but neither was successful.


Royal Military College Entrance Examination—

Of one hundred and fourteen competitors for the Royal Military College, King-ton, fifty succeeded in reaching the required standard and were admitted.


                                                                                            STAFF TOURS, WAR GAMES, ETC.

Staff tours, war games, and tactical exercises involving the employment of troops were carried out at various times and places, much to the advantage of all concerned, under arrangements made by divisional and district commanders.


Canada’s “Active Militia” Annual Militia Council Report Year Ending March 31st, 1914. 3

Canada’s “Active Militia” Annual Militia Council Report Year Ending March 31st, 1914. 3


                                                                                                     REGIMENTAL CLASSES.

Regimental classes were held in the several Divisional Areas and Military Districts with a view to assisting officers, non-commissioned officers and men to obtain certificates of qualification, and as “brush-up” courses.


                                                                                                    SCHOOL OF MUSKETRY.

Courses of from two to six weeks duration were carried out by the Canadian School of Musketry at London, Ottawa, and Halifax; and voluntary classes were held at Hamilton, Brantford, Peterborough, Ottawa and Montreal. The above courses and classes were attended by 332 officers, cadet instructors and non-commissioned officers.


                                                                                                  SCHOOL OF SIGNALLING.

A special course in signalling was held at Petawawa during July and August. It was attended by 31 officers and non-commissioned officers of the Active Militia (permanent and non-permanent) from all parts of the Dominion. The object of the course was to train officers and non-commissioned officers as instructors, and to afford them practical opportunities of studying the work which on active service would fall to the lot of signal units (troops and companies).


One or more classes were held for the benefit of the Active Militia, at each of the following stations :—

  • 1st Divisional Area.—London, St. Thomas, Windsor, Gait, Chatham and Walkerton, Ont.
  • 2nd Divisional Area.—Toronto, Hamilton, Brantford, St. Catharines, Elk Lake, Barrie, Niagara Falls, Parry Sound and Owen Sound. Out.
  • 3rd Divisional Area—Kingston, Ottawa, Port Hope, Peterborough, Belleville, and Lindsay, Out.
  • 4th Divisional Area.— Montreal, Que.
  • 5th Divisional Area.—Quebec and St. Flavie, Que.
  • 6th Divisional Area.—Halifax, Truro and Melvern Square, X.S.; St. John. Monoton, Florenceville, Oambellton, N.B. ; Charlottetown and Little York. P.L.L
  • Military District No. 10.—Winnipeg and Brandon, Man.; Port Arthur, Out.; Regina, Saskatoon, and Prince Albert, Sask.
  • Military District No. 11.—Victoria, Vancouver, Vernon, Kamloops, B.C.
  • Military District No. 13.—Calgary, Lethbridge, and Pincher Creek. Alta.


For the benefit of cadets, classes were held at the following places:—

  • Ontario.—London, St. Thomas, Gait, Chatham, Walkerton, Toronto. Hamilton, Brantford, St. Catharines. Barrio, Niagara Falls, Owen Sound, Port Hope, Peterborough, Belleville, Lindsay. Trenton, Smith’s Falls.
  • Nova Scotia.—Halifax, Truro.
  • Prince Edward Island.—Charlottetown.
  • Manitoba.—Brandon.
  • Alberta.—Calgary, Lethbridge, Pincher Creek.



The following tables show the number of certificates issued from all Schools of Instruction during the year:—

Canada’s “Active Militia” Annual Militia Council Report Year Ending March 31st, 1914. 4

Canada’s “Active Militia” Annual Militia Council Report Year Ending March 31st, 1914. 4

Canada’s “Active Militia” Annual Militia Council Report Year Ending March 31st, 1914. 5

Canada’s “Active Militia” Annual Militia Council Report Year Ending March 31st, 1914. 5


                                                                                     CANADIAN OFFICERS’ TRAINING CORPS.

In regard to the organization of the Canadian Officers’ Training Corps progress is being made. At the present time the number of contingents authorized is as follows:—

  • McGill University, Montreal, 2 Companies.
  • Laval University, Montreal. 5 Companies.


                                                                                                      INSTRUCTIONAL CADRE.

The strength of the Instructional Cadres on March 31, 1914, was as follows:—

  • Cavalry…. Officers..5…..NCO’s… 27.
  • Engineers…..”……..1…….”……… 5.
  • Infantry…… “……..8…….”………62.

The work done by officers and non-commissioned officers continues, to give the very best results.



                                                                                                                NEW UN ITS.

The following new units of the Active Militia, by branches of the service, were

authorized during the period covered by this report:—


6th Division:—

  • One Squadron, 36th P. E. I. Light Horse—”B” Squadron.

No. 10 Military District:—

  • One Squadron, 34th Fort Garry Horse—”C” Squadron.


4th Division:—

  • One Battery, Canadian Field Artillery—39th Battery, Canadian Field Artillery.


1st Division:—

  • Four Companies, 22nd Regiment (The Oxford Rifles)—”E” “F” “G” and “H” Companies.
  • 29th Waterloo Regiment converted from a rural to a city corps.

2nd Division:—

  • One Regiment, 8 Companies—97th Regiment (Algonquin Rifles).

4th Division:—

  • Four Companies, 86th Three Rivers Regiment—”E,” “F,” “G” and “H” Companies.
  • Five Companies, Canadian Officers’ Training Corps, Laval University.

5th Division:—

  • Machine Gun Detachment. 9th Regiment (Voltigeurs de Quebec).

6th Division:—

  • One Regiment—68th Regiment.

No. 10 Military District:—

  • 99th Regiment, converted from a rural to a city corps.

No. 11 Military District:—

  • One Regiment, 8 Companies—50th Regiment.
  • One Regiment, 8 Companies—11th Regiment (Irish Fusiliers of Canada).
  • Two Companies, 102nd Regiment (Rocky Mountain Rangers)—”E” and “F” Companies.
  • Three Companies, 104th Regiment ( Westminster Fusiliers of Canada)—”F,” “G” and “H” Companies.
  • One Company, Independent Company of Sharpshooters.
  • Earl Grey’s Own Rifles, converted into a four company city unit.


Canadian Army Service Corps.

No. 10 Military District:—

  • One Company—No. 20 Company, Canadian Army Service Corps.


Canadian Army Medical Corps.

2nd Division:—

  • No. 1 General Hospital, converted into a Clearing Hospital.

5th Division:—

  • No. VII Cavalry Field Ambulance, converted into a Field Ambulance.

6th Division:—

  • No. 2 General Hospital, converted into a Clearing Hospital.




The following units were disbanded:—


1st Division:—

  • One squadron, 1st Hussars, on conversion from a four to a three squadron establishment —” C ” Squadron.
  • One Squadron, 24th Regiment, (Grey’s Horse), on conversion from a four to a three squadron establishment—”D ” Squadron.

4th Division:—

  • One Squadron, 11th Hussars, on conversion from a four to a three squadron establishment—” D ” Squadron..

6th Division:—

  • One Squadron, Sth Princess Louise’s New Brunswick Hussars, on conversion from a four to a three squadron establishment—”A” Squadron.

No. 10 Military District:—

  • One Squadron, 27th Light Horse—”C” Squadron.

No. 13 Military District:—

  • One Squadron, 19th Alberta Dragoons, on conversion from a four to a three squadron establishment—” D ” Squadron.



4th Division :—

  • Ammunition Park.


Canada's Militia Battery, Pictou, Nova Scotia, ca 1909.

Canada’s Militia Battery, Pictou, Nova Scotia, ca 1909.



In addition to the above, the following changes in organization were also authorized:—

  • Army Medical Corps of Instruction were organized.
  • Canadian Signal Corps was reorganized.

Changes in Brigade organizations were made from time to time to meet the requirements of the service:—

  • Mounted Brigade Staff—Orderly officer and subordinate staff appointed permanently to Brigade headquarters, and not taken from Regimental establishments; also addition of 1 trumpeter. 7 Mounted Brigades = 7 officers and 70 other ranks.
  • Infantry Brigade Staff—Orderly officer and subordinate staff appointed permanently to Brigade headquarters and not taken from Regimental establishments. 23 Infantry Brigades=23 officers and 161 other ranks.


                                                                APPOINTMENTS—ACTIVE MILITIA (NON-PERMANENT).

The following statement shows the number of officers (including provisional appointments) appointed to the Active Militia (Non-Permanent), during the twelve months ended March 31, 1914:—

  • Cavalry (including Corps of Guides)….222
  • Artillery…………71
  • Engineers…………19
  • Infantry………..749
  • Departmental…..270
  • Total……….. 1,331



The number of commissions in the Active Militia issued during the period under review was 829, exclusive of 23 in the Permanent Force—a total of 852. Twenty-three warrants were issued to specially qualified non-commissioned officers of the Active Militia, including Permanent Force.



The Establishments of the Canadian Militia, including Permanent Force, for the year 1913-14 were promulgated on April 15, 1913. The following regulations were issued during the twelve months ending March 31, 1914:—

  • Canadian Priced List of Stores, Clothing and Necessaries, 1912.
  • Memorandum for Camps of Instruction, 1913, Part I, English.
  • …..”……………… “………………….. “…………… French.
  • …..”……………… “………………….. “……………Part II, English.
  • …..”……………… “………………….. “……………Part II, French.
  • The Cadet System in Schools, English.
  • ….”……..… “…………”…….French.
  • Instructions for Practice—Horse, Field and Heavy Artillery, 1913.
  • Handbook for the Canadian Sendee Rifle, Ross, Mark III, 1912, Parts I and II.
  • Instructions for Setting up Sub-target Rifle Machine, Model H.
  • Standing Orders, Petawawa Camp, 1913.
  • Office Instructions for the guidance and general information of all persons serving in the Department of Militia and Defence, 1913.
  • Instructions for Practice, Seawards, 1913-14.
  • Regulations for the Equipment of the Canadian Militia, Part II.
  • Regimental Establishments of the Canadian Militia, 1913-14.
  • Report on examination for admission to the Royal Military College, 1912.
  • Regulations for the Corps of Guides, 1913.
  • War Establishments, Provisional, 1913, Canadian Militia.
  • Regulations for the Equipment of the Canadian Militia, Part 2, Section 111,
  • Engineers, Field Troop, 1913.
  • Regulations for the Equipment of the Canadian Militia, Part 2, Section 111, No. 1 Section of a Signal Company with a Division (Equipment for 1 Cable Detachment 1913.
  • Regulations for the Equipment of the Canadian Militia, Part 2, Section 111,
  • Engineers’ Field Company, 1913.
  • Regulations for Cadet Corps, 1913, French.
  • Report on examination for admission to the Royal Military College, 1913.
  • Report of General Sir Ian Hamilton on the military institutions of Canada.
  • Regulations for the Canadian Officers’ Training Corps, Provisional, 1913.
  • Militia Council Report, English, 1913.
  • …”…………”…………French, 1913.
  • A Short Guide to the various ways of obtaining a commission in the Canadian Permanent Force, 1914.
  • Rifle and Musketry Exercises for the Ross Rifle, 1914.
  • Memorandum respecting Militia Main Estimates, 191-1-15.



The number and description of medals issued during the twelve months ending

March 31, 1914, were as follows:—

  • Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers’ Decorations…..34.
  • Colonial Auxiliary Forces Long Service Medal……22.
  • Long Service and Good Conduct Medal……………35.
  • General Service Medal…………………………….271.
  • Northwest, Canada……………………………………7.


                                                                                                           COURTS MARTIAL.

The number of non-commissioned officers and men tried by courts-martial during the year ending March 31, 1914, was 89.


                                                                                                           CADET SERVICES.

                                                                                                  NUMBER OF COMPANIES.

On April 1, 1913, the number of companies was 759 and the number of cadets 30,800, while, on March 31, 1914, the number of companies was 1,117 and the number of cadets 44,680, or an increase of 358 companies and 14,380 cadets during the year.


                                                                                      TEACHERS WHO HAVE QUALIFIED.

During 1913, 31G male school teachers qualified as Cadet Instructors, and, in addition, 133 took the School of Musketry certificate.


                                                                                                       CADET SIGNALLING.

In addition to the Corps of School Cadet Instructors, who all have to qualify in elementary signalling, 27 Cadet classes were held last year, and 290 cadets obtained military signalling certificates.



In May, 1913, six Canadian cadets went to England and shot at the Imperial Cadet Rifle Meeting, and won a number of cups and trophies, including:—

  1. The Duke of Wellington’s Cup.
  2. Grand Aggregate.
  3. Clementine Fessenden Cup and Gold Medal, won by Cadet Bradley of Quebec.
  4. Bronze medallion of Lord Roberts, won by Cadet Huggins of Ottawa.
  5. Bronze Medal, won by Cadet McNabb of Ottawa.


Each member of the team won a match rifle and gold medal for grand aggregate, competing against nine other teams. During the Dominion of Canada Rifle Association Meeting in Ottawa, 1913, the Canadian Cadets won the Lord Roberts’ Shield, defeating cadets from all parts of the British Empire. This Shield was presented by His Royal Highness The Governor General to Major-General The Honourable Sam Hughes, Minister of Militia and Defence at the annual meeting of the Dominion of Canada Rifle Association, in February, and, at the request of Major-General Hughes, is being kept at Government House by His Royal Highness The Governor General, for the year. His Royal Highness at the same time also presented the medals to the two Ottawa Cadets, Huggins and McNabb, who were members of the Canadian team. In August, 1913, ten cadets, representing the Mother Country, with two officers and a sergeant-major, visited Canada, as guests of the Dominion Government, and took part in the matches of the Dominion of Canada Rifle Association. They also visited Petawawa Military Camp, Niagara, and other places, as guests of the Canadian Government. The Province of Alberta won the Governor General’s Challenge Shield for the greatest number of cadets in the province, according to the school population.


                                                                                                       PHYSICAL TRAINING.

At a special eight weeks’ course at Toronto in 1913, fifty teachers qualified to become instructors of school teachers at Normal School centres, and, in addition, about 7,000 school teachers qualified for the ” B ” Grade, Physical Trailing Certificate to instruct children in school.



                                                                                         HORSE AND FIELD ARTILLERY.

Progress has been made in the provision of the necessary guns and equipment to complete the Divisional organization recommended by Sir Ian Hamilton. A number of machine guns are under order.


                                                                                                             SMALL ARMS.

The output of rifles and bayonets by the Ross Rifle Factory has been satisfactory. Fourteen hundred of the ten thousand -22 Cadet Ross Rifles ordered during the year have been completed. Nine hundred (900) were issued in lots of one hundred (100) each to the different Divisions and Districts for test and report, previous to the final approval of the pattern.


After extensive tests a portable brigade telephone set has been adopted and a number ordered for the equipment of the Artillery Brigade Telephone wagons. Arrangements have also been made for the issue of portable telephone sets to all field artillery brigades and field batteries.


                                                                                                    DOMINION ARSENAL.

Certain changes were made in the administration of the Dominion Arsenal. The Mark VII., ammunition’ now being turned out is equal to the best British standard. Improvements have also been made in the manufacture of shells. A proof butt is being constructed for the testing of guns and cases up to six-inch. It is expected that the butt will be completed in the early summer.


                                                                                                NEW DANGER BUILDINGS.

Steps are now being taken with a view to the construction of danger buildings of the most up-to-date type.


                                                                                                  VEHICLES AND STORKS.

The customary inspection of vehicles and stores was made by the Inspector of Carriages during the year.


                                                                                                     ENGINEER SERVICES.


In the various Divisional Areas and Military Districts, the existing drill halls, rifle ranges, camp grounds and other military properties, were repaired as far as funds allowed.

It is pointed out, however, that the funds available for maintenance and repairs are quite inadequate to keep these buildings, etc. in proper condition. It must be realized that as the number of buildings, rifle ranges, and new works generally are added each year, a corresponding annual increase in the funds for maintenance is absolutely necessary.


                                                                                                               DRILL HALLS.

During the fiscal year 1913-14, the construction of drill halls for the accommodation of the Canadian Militia was a larger factor in the policy of the Department of Militia and Defence than at any previous time in the history of the department. The policy of the department was to have certain standard designs for drill halls prepared and approved, so that, according to the size and requirements of the different places at which drill halls were to be constructed, each would be dealt with on an exactly equal footing. This policy has been found to work very satisfactorily. The types of building were designed with a view to getting the greatest possible value out of the amount voted, at the same time conforming to the best type of building in the various towns to which drill halls were allotted.


(Black Watch) 5th Regiment Royal Highlanders of Canada 1913-14.

(Black Watch) 5th Regiment Royal Highlanders of Canada post 1912.


The following drill halls were constructed or under construction by the Department of Militia and Defence during the year:—

(Quebec Tercentenary) 5th Regt. Royal Highlanders of Canada, (Black Watch) marching up St. John Street Quebec [P.Q.].

(Quebec Tercentenary) 5th Regt. Royal Highlanders of Canada, (Black Watch) marching up St. John Street Quebec [P.Q.].

  • Kincardine, Ont……………..Wingham, Ont.
  • Mount Forest, Ont……………..Watford, Ont.
  • Port Elgin, Ont……………….Oshawa, Ont.
  • Markdale, Ont………………..Simcoe. Ont.
  • Brampton, Ont…………………Orillia, Ont.
  • Lindsay, Ont…………………Omemee, Ont.
  • Norwood, Ont………………….Picton, Ont.
  • Millbrook, Ont…………………Madoc, Ont.
  • Orono, Ont…………………Blackstock, Ont.
  • Alexandria, Ont……………….Renfrew, Ont.
  • Kemptville, Ont………….Sherbrooke, Que.
  • Beauport, Que………………Montreal, Que.
  • Bury, Que………………..Montmagny, Que.
  • Moosejaw, Sask……………..Grenfell, Sask.
  • Moosomin, Sask…………..Minnedosa, Man.
  • Maple Creek, Sask…..North Battleford, Sask.
  • Indian Head, Sask………………Vernon, B.C.
  • Chilliwack, B.C…………….Armstrong, B.C.
  • Merritt, B.C……………………Enderby, B.C.
  • Vegreville, Alta………………Red Deer, Alta.


The following drill halls and military buildings were constructed or under construction by the Department of Public Works during the year:—

  • St. John, N.B.—Drill hall.
  • Amherst, N.S.—Drill hall.
  • Quebec, Que.—Extension to drill hall.
  • Levis, Que.—Armoury and gun shed.
  • Niagara Falls, Ont.—Armoury.
  • Kingston, Ont.—New dormitory, R.M.C.
  • Pembroke, Ont.—Drill hall.
  • Port Arthur, Ont.—Drill hall.
  • Winnipeg, Man.—Drill hall.
  • Edmonton, Alta.—Drill hall.
  • Victoria, B.C.—Drill hall.


                                                                                                               RIFLE RANGES.

New rifle ranges are being built each year as rapidly as the acquisition of land for them will allow. It is evident that this becomes more difficult each year, as land increases in value in the vicinity of growing towns, and the area required for safety is now much greater owing to the increased range of modern rifles. The following is a list of the rifle ranges constructed or repaired during the year:—

  • St. John, N.B.—Repairs.
  • Pointe-aux-Trembles, Que.—Completion of extension to range, 5 targets.
  • Levis, Que.—Extension to range (600 x), 6 targets.
  • Three Rivers, Que.—Repairs to stop butt.
  • Toronto, Ont.—Addition to Long Branch rifle range, 40 targets.
  • Middleton, Ont.—New range, 3 targets.
  • Collingwood, Ont.—Construction of new range, 4 targets.
  • Windsor, Ont.—Completion of new range, 3 targets.
  • Peterborough, Ont.—Completion of new range, 9 targets.
  • Parry Sound, Ont.—Completion of new range, 5 targets.
  • Broekville, Ont.—Fencing and provision of well.
  • Kingston, Ont.—Extension of range, 9 targets.
  • Ottawa, Ont.—Construction, Connaught rifle range.
  • Winnipeg, Man.—Extension of range, 30 targets.
  • Armstrong, B.C.—Completion of range, 7 targets.
  • Victoria, B.C.—Survey and clearing.


                                                                                                           LANDS ACQUIRED.

The following municipalities donated sites for drill halls during the year 1913-14:—

(Quebec Tercentenary) 5th Regt. Royal Highlanders of Canada, marching up St. John Street Quebec [P.Q.].

(Quebec Tercentenary) 5th Regt. Royal Highlanders of Canada, marching up St. John Street Quebec [P.Q.].

  • Barrie, Ont.
  • Blackstock, Ont.
  • Bowmanville, Ont.
  • Fort Frances, Ont.
  • Gait, Ont.
  • Haileybury, Ont.
  • Listowel, Ont.
  • Madoc, Ont.
  • Mill brook, Ont.
  • Napanee, Ont.
  • Alexandria, Ont.
  • Renfrew, Ont.
  • Stirling, Ont.
  • Wingham. Ont.
  • Estevan, Sask.
  • Indian Head, Sask.
  • Prince Albert, Sask.
  • Swift Current, Sask.
  • Red Deer, Alta.


The following drill hall sites were, also, donated by private individuals:—

  • Beauport, Que.—Donated by Messrs. J. E. Bedard and Edmond Giroux.
  • Montreal, Que.—Drill hall site, McGill University. Donated by Lord Strathcona.
  • Windsor. Ont.—Addition to Drill hall site, donated by officers 21st Regiment.
  • Elbow River, Alta.—Donated by Major E. G. May.
  • Merritt, B.C.—Donated by Messrs. Derry, MoCune & Leyrer.


In addition to the drill hall sites donated as above, the following other properties were acquired during the year:—

  • Souris, P.E.I.—Rifle range site.
  • Summerside, P.E.I.—Rifle range site.
  • Sussex, N.B.—Drill hall site.
  • Woodstock, N.B.—Additional land, drill hall site.
  • Halifax, N.S.—Married quarters for N.C.O.’s.
  • Antigonish, N.S.—Drill hall site.
  • Truro, N.S.—Additional land, rifle range site.
  • Bury, Que.—Drill hall site.
  • Farnham, Que.—Additional land, camp site.
  • Montmagny, Que.—Drill hall site.
  • Montreal, Que.—Drill hall site. (1st Grenadier Guards of Canada).
  • Brantford, Ont.—Drill hall site.
  • Caledonia, Ont.—Drill hall site.
  • Ingersoll, Ont.—Drill hall site.
  • Omemee, Ont.—Additional land, drill hall site.
  • Orono, Ont.—Drill hall site.
  • Port Hope, Ont.—Drill hall site.
  • Uxbridge, Ont.—Rifle range site.
  • Watford, Ont.—Drill hall site. (Town contributed towards cost of site.)
  • St. James, Man.—Drill hall site.
  • Vancouver, B.C.—Drill hall site for University.



                                                                                                                FIELD WORK.

The Held work of the Survey Division was performed from April 22 to December

1913 and from January 3 to March 29, 1914. Two parties, of five men each, ran 978 miles of chained transit traverse, partly in the vicinity of Halifax and partly south of the St. Lawrence river between Montreal and Quebec, their periods of employment being equivalent to one party for 35% weeks. In the latter district two parties, of three men each, ran a total of 1,350 miles of secondary traverse, their period of employment being equivalent to one party for 51 1/7 weeks, and a party of two traversed 40 miles of railway in 1 5/12 weeks. In the vicinity of Quebec one level party of two men, employed for 20 1/7 weeks, ran 580 miles of levels.



The topography, which was carried out during the summer in the Eastern Townships and along the St. Lawrence river, covered an area of 1,709 square miles. The topography of seven sheets of the regular series was completed. Eighteen men in all were employed as topographers, viz.: two civil servants, nine non-commissioned officers and men of the Royal Engineers, five non-commissioned officers of the Royal Canadian Engineers and two temporary employees. A staff officer, with headquarters at Lennoxville, was in charge. The field sheets as completed were checked on the ground by an independent examiner, the result showing satisfactory work on the part of all topographers. During the winter two parties, of five men each, were employed upon topography in the Halifax district, principally in mapping lakes. During their period of employment, equivalent to one party for 24 weeks, they covered an area of 310 square miles, and mapped the 249 lakes therein.


                                                                                            LITHOGRAPHING AND PRINTING.

The lithographing and printing plant is now running and several maps have been reproduced. During the year nineteen sheets of the 1 inch to 1 mile series were published. In all, seventy-three sheets of the 1 inch to 1 mile series covering an area of 23,417 square miles, have now been completely surveyed. Of these, fifty-one have been published, five are in the hands of the lithographers in England, and seventeen are in course of preparation in the Survey Division. Four one-half inch to 1 mile sheets have also been, published. Twelve special maps, for use at camps of instruction and other purposes, were printed by the Survey Division, and 1,884 copies issued. Of the sheets of the regular 1 inch series, 583 were sold, and 3,098 were issued free; while of the one-half inch series, 73 were sold and 290 issued free, making for the year a total distribution of 6,528.


Canada’s “Active Militia” Annual Militia Council Report Year Ending March 31st, 1914. 6

Canada’s “Active Militia” Annual Militia Council Report Year Ending March 31st, 1914. 6








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