Canada’s “Cadet Corps” Militia Council Report, Year Ending March 31st, 1910-1911.

Canada’s “Cadet Corps” Militia Council Report, Year Ending March 31st, 1910.



  1. The steady growth in numbers of cadet corps under the supervision of the department continues to be maintained, and interest in the movement appears general throughout all the provinces. On March 31, 1910, the numbers of gazetted cadet corps had reached 215, embracing 362 cadet companies, with a membership of close upon 15,000 boys. These were distributed among the provinces of the Dominion as follows:—
Canada’s Cadet Services Corps Militia Council Report, Year Ending March 31st, 1910.

Canada’s Cadet Services Corps Militia Council Report, Year Ending March 31st, 1910.


  1. Disbandments were made of only three cadet units (with an equal number of companies), and the net increase over the previous year was 30 cadet corps, embracing 33 cadet companies, and with a membership of over 2,800. The great majority of Canadian Cadet Corps are affiliated with the public schools of the various provinces and in many cases receive tangible assistance from the local boards of school trustees, mainly in the provision of uniform, or an armoury or armoury fittings for the storage of arms, equipment, &c.
  2. Ross rifles, Mark II*., are now issued to each cadet corps for drill purposes and target practice with the -303 service ammunition, and a proportionate number of Ross rifles, Mark I., for drill and miniature target practice with the standard gallery cartridge. The cadets are thus enabled to receive a course of training similar to that of the Militia, and, in addition, the distribution of service rifles to cadets throughout the country provides a valuable reserve of arms for which reliable linesmen are responsible, and which would be easily obtainable should occasion ever arise necessitating their employment in an emergency.
  3. The consensus of reports of inspecting officers upon the annual cadet inspections for the year goes to show steady progress towards efficiency. The policy of returning a letter of criticism (for communication to the cadet officers and school authorities) upon each inspection report reaching Headquarters has been continued, and is believed to have beneficial results.
  4. The increase in the standard of qualification for cadet instructors is already showing beneficial results in the greater efficiency of units generally reported by inspecting officers. The creation of a separate corps of the Militia—the Corps of School Cadet Instructors, composed only of duly qualified male teachers of the public schools, and the establishment of a scale of allowances for cadet instructors, has provided the requisite prestige and encouragement for the teaching staff to participate in the work. Courses of instruction for the qualification of cadet instructors were held during the summer vacation, 1009, in the Maritime Provinces and Western Ontario Commands. In all cases large numbers of school teachers attended the courses and, at Stanley Barracks, Toronto, and Wolseley Barracks, London, the numbers applying for accommodation were much in excess of those who could be instructed during the period available.
  5. An edition of the Cadet Regulations, revised to July 1, 1910, will be issued during the coming summer. This consolidates existing regulations and amendments as promulgated in General Orders from time to time- since the publication of the last Regulations in 1906.


Canada’s Montreal. Mount Saint-Louis Cadets, 2nd Batallion, Ca ca 1910.

Canada’s Montreal. Mount Saint-Louis Cadets, 2nd Batallion, Ca ca 1910.


  1. A source of much encouragement and incentive to cadet corps generally has been afforded by the generous gift of a trophy for cadet competition, during the current year, by His Excellency Earl Grey, Governor-General of Canada. The idea intended to be shown by the trophy is the illustration of the conquest of the Base and Unworthy by the Spirit of Wisdom, Courage and Love. This is done through the medium of a silver and bronze group of St. George and the Dragon, with a background of the Union Jack and Maple Leaf in enamel, representing the Young Knight c£ Strenuous Endeavour riding out from the heart of the Union Jack to protect the Maple Leaf from the Dragon of Ignorance, Sloth and Self-interest. Under the conditions imposed by His Excellency, the trophy is to be won by the municipality which can show the largest percentage of gazetted cadets between the ages of 12 and 16 years, in proportion to its population. For the purposes of the competition the strength of cadet corps will be taken as on May 24, 1910, and the population of municipalities on January 1, 1910.
  2. Further encouragement was given the cadets by the generous invitation of he ‘Lord Roberts’ Boys of London, England, for a Canadian cadet team to compete at Bisley, 1909, for the gold medal given by H.R.H. The Princess of Wales (now Her Majesty, Queen Mary) for rifle competition with the cadets of the Mother Country on ‘Empire Day.’ Two cadets representing Canada were sent over, viz.: Cadet Captain Flood and Cadet Sergeant Galer Hagarty, both of Cadet Corps No. 48, Harbord Collegiate Institute, Toronto. Neither was very successful, owing to lack of familiarity with English conditions, and the miniature shooting of which the competitions chiefly consisted. They, however, report having been the recipients of most generous hospitality and kindness on all sides, and state they were specially indebted to the Hon. Secretary ‘Lord Roberts’ Boys,’ R. J. E. Hanson, Esq., M.A., R.N.V.R., for courtesies extended. The invitation for a Canadian cadet team to attend the ‘Boys’ Bisley, 1910, has again been received from the Executive of the Imperial Cadet Association (successors of ‘ Lord Roberts’ Boys ‘) and it is confidently expected that a team capable of upholding the credit of Canada will be selected.
  3. The Dominion Rifle Association and Canadian Rifle League continued their encouragement of the previous year to cadets, whereby it was made possible for some 60 odd cadets to compete throughout the Dominion of Canada Rifle Association and furnish a team representative of the Dominion to enter for the Lord Roberts’ Trophy Competition. Unfortunately this match was shot off at a late hour and poor scores were made by the Canadian Cadet Team. The Dominion of Canada Rifle Association have promised better time-table schedules in future contests.
  4. The presentation of colours to local cadet corps by the ladies of the ‘Daughters of the Empire’ at Vancouver, B.C., Winnipeg, Man., and Ottawa, Out., the reviews at various points by His Excellency the Governor-General—notably at Ottawa on November 9. 1909, and at Toronto previously—as well as Lord Strathcona’s gift of caps to the public school cadets of the latter city, have directed the marked attention of the public to the cadet movement, as well as stimulated the youthful population to a proper pride in these organizations affiliated with the educational institution which they attend.
  5. Many inquiries respecting the formation of ‘Boy Scouts ‘ have been received by the Department, but this branch of juvenile organization does not come within its purview, section 65 of the Militia Act limiting the control of minors by the Minister of Militia and Defence to lads between the ages of 12 and 18 years, who may be formed into cadet corps. Leaders of the ‘Boy Scout’ movement in Canada have declined gazettement as cadets on the score of independence of the Department, and as matter of fact they are chartered and supervised by the Supreme Council of General Sir Baden-Powell’s ‘Boy Scout’ organization in London, England. The need for local supervision has, however, now become very urgent and arrangements are being completed by His Excellency the Governor-General with the Lieutenant-Governors of provinces for the formation of Provincial Committees under which the organization of ‘Boy Scouts ‘ in the several provinces will be supervised and controlled.



  1. The provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Saskatchewan and British Colombia have now expressed their adhesion to the terms of the Constitution of the ‘Strathcona Trust’ and have adopted, as part of their educational system, the physical training of all pupils in Elementary Schools.* During the year courses of instruction for school teachers have been held throughout Nova Scotia and New Brunswick and Ontario, with the following results:—
  1. Total number of school teachers and prospective school teachers instructed.1,538.
  2. *Certificates awarded for proficiency to instruct in physical training……1,301.
  3. Certificates awarded for proficiency in military drill and qualifying as cadet instructors…120.
  4. Failures to qualify in physical training…..107.
  5. Failures to qualify as cadet instructors….4.
  6. Total failures…….111.

*In the province of Ontario arrangements have not yet progressed sufficiently for the establishment of any instructional courses in physical training for the school teachers.

  • F. W. BORDEN.
  • Minister of Militia and Defence.
  • Department of Militia and Defence,
  • Ottawa, September 1, 1910.


Canada’s Mont Saint-Louis cadets band, QC, 1911.

Canada’s Mont Saint-Louis cadets band, QC, 1911.


Canada’s Cadet Corps Militia Council Report, Year Ending March 31st, 1911.


  1. The number of Cadet Corps supervised by the Department has increased very materially during the past year in almost all the Provinces. On March 31, 1911, there were 263 gazetted Cadet Corps, composed of 442 Cadet Companies, with a membership of almost 18,000 boys. The distribution of these Cadet Corps by Provinces was as follows:—
  • Province of Ontario 89 Cadet Units with 129 Cadet Companies.
  • ….”……….Quebec 68……..”………….170……..”…..
  • ….”…  Nova Scotia 45…….”……………50…….”……
  • ….”… New Brunswick 11….”……………11…….”……
  • ….”…P. E. Island 5………..”……………..6…….”……
  • ….”…Manitoba 12 ………..”…………….18…….”……
  • ….”…Saskatchewan 7…….”……………..7……..”……
  • ….”….Alberta 18…………”…………….41…….”……
  • ….”…British Columbia 6…”……………..9……..”……
  • ….”……….Yukon 1………”……………..1…….”……
  • Grand Total………263 Cadet Units ……442 Cadet Companies.


  1. There were 4 Cadet Corps with 20 companies disbanded in the Province of Quebec; one Corps of one company in New Brunswick and 2 Corps of one company each in the Province of Alberta. The increase over the previous year was 48 Cadet Corps, comprising 80 Cadet Companies with a membership of over 3,000.
  2. Courses of instruction for the qualification of school teachers as Cadet Instructors were again held during the year in the Maritime Provinces and at Stanley and Wolseley Barracks. So far 214 teachers have qualified as Cadet Instructors, of whom 41 have been gazetted Lieutenants in the Corps of School Cadet Instructors. These 41 Cadet Instructors have been appointed as follows:—
  • Western Ontario Command, eight;
  • Eastern Ontario Command, five;
  • Maritime Provinces Command, twenty-three;
  • Military District No. 11, four;
  • Military District No. 13, one.


  1. In addition to the Ross Rifles, Mark I. issued to Cadet Corps for drill and miniature target-practice with gallery ammunition, and the Ross rifle, Mark II, issued for drill purposes and target practice with the .303 service ammunition and sub-target guns, an issue of brown leather waist-belts and soft brown felt hats has been authorized.
  2. The reports of the inspecting officers on the Cadet Corps for the past year have been generally satisfactory and show that greater efficiency has been attained.
  3. The Challenge Trophy, so generously donated by His Excellency Earl Grey, Governor-General of Canada, was won by the Municipality of Strathcona, Alberta, with a percentage of 2.38 gazetted Cadets in proportion to its population. The three Cadet Corps in Strathcona competed for the trophy which was awarded to No. 179, The Duggan Street School Cadet Company.
  4. The Imperial Cadet Association of London, England, again extended a kind invitation for a Canadian Cadet Team to compete at Bisley, 1910, in rifle competitions with the Cadets of the Mother Comitry on “Empire Day”. Four Cadets representing Canada were sent over, viz:—Cadet J. F. Bates, Hamilton Collegiate Institute; Cadet Sergeant Tidswell, Hamilton Collegiate Institute; Cadet Liddy, High School, Dundas, Ont., and Cadet Captain Crawford, High School, Quebec, P.Q. The showing made by them was very creditable as will be seen from the following:—
  • In Match IV, “The Booysen’s Cup”, (Transvaal, S. A.) an individual contest at figure target. Cadet Liddy won the second prize with a score of 88 out of 100 points. The first prize was won by an English Cadet with 90 points.
  • In Match V, “The Toowang Cup”, (Australia),the third prize in class 2 was won by Cadet Captain Crawford with a score of 42 points. The top score was 48.
  • In Match VI, “The Polhill Gully Cup”, (New Zealand), a contest of best rate of fire in 90 seconds; the third prize in class I was won .by Cadet Liddy with 58 points. The highest score was 66.
  • In Match VII, “The Rockhffe Cup”, (Canada), the cup, gold medal and £1.10, was won by Cadet Liddy with a score of 46 out of a possible 50 points. In
  • Match VIII, “The Grand Aggregate”, Cadet Liddy took second place, with 220 points, winning the “Inglis” silver medal and a match rifle. The top score was 228. Cadet Bates took 17th place with 150 points and Cadet Tidswell 19th place with 147 points.
  • In Match IX, “The Clementine Fesendum Cup”, a competition to test the best rate of fire in 45 seconds, the third place was won by Cadet Liddy, with 35 points, the 12th place by Cadet Tidswell, with 30 points and the 15th place by Cadet Crawford, with 30 points.


Canada’s Cadets ca 1910, Renfrew, Ont. Canada.

Canada’s Cadets ca 1910, Renfrew, Ont. Canada.


The Cadets were entertained by the Lord Mayor of London, the Earl of Buckingham, S’r Lauder Brunton and Sir Reginald Hennell, and also at Harrow and Eton. They visited the United Service College at Windsor, and went to Brussels, Waterloo and Plymouth, and were much indebted to Dr. R. J. E. Hanson, Esq., M.A., R.N.V.R., Hony. Secretary of the Imperial Cadet Association, for many of the courtesies extended to them and the personal interest he took in them. An invitation has again been received from the Executive of the Imperial Cadet Association for a Canadian Cadet Team to attend the “Boys” Bisley, 1911, and the sending of a team which will uphold the reputation of Canadian boy marksmen is contemplated.

  1. A Team of twelve Cadets representing the Imperial Cadet Alliance, London, England, attended the last meeting of the Dominion Rifle Association at Rockliffe, and were accorded free entry to all the matches and provided with accommodation on the grounds. Major McCallum, of the Irish Guards, was in Command of the visitors. At his suggestion, a special team match was arranged between the Imperial and Canadian Cadets; the cup donated by the Canadian Rifle League, was won by the Overseas Cadets, and the gold medal given by Principal Hagarty, of the Harbord Collegiate Institute, Toronto, by Private V. Wormald, King’s Royal Rifles.
  • I have the honour to be, Sir, Your Royal Highness’s most obedient Servant, SAM HUGHES, Minister of Militia and Defence.
  • November 1911.



  • From, —The Inspector-General, Canadian Militia.
  • To,—The Secretary, Militia Council.
  • Ottawa, January 27. 1912.



  1. As my duties do not cover the inspection of Cadet Corps, any knowledge I may have acquired of their condition, has been obtained through the records kept at the headquarters of divisions and districts, together with what has been picked up from natural cursory inquiry.
  2. The organization is evidently increasing rapidly, is showing steadiness and smartness in drill, and developing both interest and skill in musketry.
  3. In connection with musketry. I gather that there is a marked improvement in the interest taken by Cadets, and the Dominion and the Provincial Rifle Associations are to be commended for the efforts made to encourage their attendance at prize meetings.
  4. Any encouragement given this service naturally redounds to the advantage of the Militia Force.
  5. The Cadet Instructors are also doing a great deal in the same direction by qualifying themselves at the School or Schools of Musketry, and thus becoming fit to train those in their immediate charge.
  6. The appointment of special officers for supervising the training of these corps seems a necessity in view of their rapid development.


  • I have the honour to be, sir. Your obedient servant. W. D. OTTER, Colonel, (Temporary Major-General), Inspector-General.







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