Aeronautics — American Magazine of Aeronautics Vol. 6 No. 3 March 1910. — FOREIGN LETTER. — Canada. — CANADIAN AEROPLANES’ SUCCESS:—
Successful flights have been made with the “Baddeck I” and the “Baddeck II,” the first two machines to have been built by the Canadian Aerodrome Co. These are practically duplicates of one another. The supporting wings are 40 ft. spread, exclusive of the balancing rudders or “wing tips.” and 7 ft. deep at the middle, gradually decreasing to 5 ft. at the extremities. The wings are spaced 6 ft. 3 in. at the centre, the spacing gradually decreasing towards both ends to 5 ft. The general form has been characteristic of all machines, including those of the Aerial Experiment Association. The bow control is double decked, and hinged 15 ft. from the front edge of the main surface. Its planes have the following dimensions: 12 ft. spread by 28 in. depth, and are spaced 30 in. apart. These also are the exact dimensions of the longitudinal balancer, or tail, which is secured 11 ft. distant from the rear edge of the main planes. The vertical rudder is hinged between the surfaces of the tail, and, although small, serves amply when called upon.
The wing tips have approximately the shape of a quadrant with a radius of 5 ft. There is one of these placed at the extremity of each main surface, the two at the starboard end working together and the port pair acting in a similar manner. They are operated by wires connected to a movable shoulder-brace which fits around the operator’s back and shoulders. The front control and the rear vertical rudder are operated by a single wheel. The third or front wheel of the chassis is attached so that it is capable of being turned right or left, as in a tricycle. A single propeller of 7 ft. 8 in. diameter with an average pitch of 6 ft. is used’. This is driven by chain drive in a ratio of 3:5 from a 40 h. p. Kirkham motor. This engine is an automobile motor, six-cylinder and water-cooled, of standard make, and has given every satisfaction possible, developing 40 h. p. at 1,400 r. p.m., and 48 h. p. at 2,000 r.p.m. The radiator used is one of their own designs, and consists of 30 tubes, so arranged that they give, apart from their cooling properties, the greatest lift possible with the least drift. These tubes are 7 ft. 6 in. long, and 3 in. wide, and .S-32 in. thick, and they have the same fore and aft curve as that given to the main surfaces. Such a form of radiator is practically self-supporting, even including the water carried. At present, the machine is simply being tested on a small field at Baddeck, and although many flights were made this fall, the inventors are not prepared to publish much concerning them just now. They have to rely on ice for good “grounds.” and are waiting for the large bay there to freeze over when they hope to get in some good flying. A fifteen-mile circular flight with fourteen complete turns was made a few days ago.
Morning Flight of Baddeck No. 2 March 3rd., McCurdy’s Account:— Sarah wakened me this morning at seven o’clock with the news that Ingraham had telephoned from the Lab., saying it was a good morning for the flight. Got own as quickly as I could; met John at about the graveyard with the sleigh where he turned round and took me to the Canadian Aerodrome Company. Put on my flying costume there and drove down to the ice. Rode the machine down to Mr. Bell’s houseboat, turned around there on the ice under her own power and headed up the Baddeck shore. Rose quickly into the air, flew up to Mr. Kennan’s boathouse, turned to the left, crossed the Bay and circled round to the big she an on again to the Crescent Grove shore. Repeated this circuit ten rounds. On the tenth round, approaching the big she, my eyes caught Willie McDonald waving his left arm. I instantly knew, from a former arrangement, that his telegraphing meant that ten rounds had been completed. In a moment I looked up again and saw a man directly in front of the machine waving, as I thought frantically. Thought it was Andy Rose and conclude that something must be wrong with the machine and he desired me to stop. Came down instantly an when I enquired what the trouble was found out that there was nothing wrong, but that it was still Willie McDonald waving. Time for this flight was twenty o minutes. We immediately felt the radiator and found all cool an O.K. After a rest of about ten minutes started off again completed a flight of sixteen minutes duration. Landed off the shed, not because anything was wrong, but just because T thought I would come down. Casey and Gariner took the time of machine over distance between Garruth’s wharf and Cresent Grove boathouse so that we could from some idea of the speed. What this was I haven’t yet heard. (Int.) McC.
Prof. Alec G. Bell, Mar. 3, Account:— About half past eight this morning a telephone message reached me from John McDonald saying that Douglas McCurdy had been up in the air for twenty minutes and asking whether he should come up for us. We asked him to come right away and Mrs. Bell, Mrs. Baldwin, Miss Mabel McCurdy and Drove down to the Lab. After passing the warehouse and stable we heard the distant whirr of the propeller of Baddeck No. 2 and, looking over the Bay, discovered the machine in the air near the other side. We stopped the horse on the brow of the Hill and watched the machine sweep across the Bay from the other side and pass us only a short distance away. The machine seemed to be about 50 feet in the air and was moving with great steadiness. McCurdy appeared to have it perfectly under control. This was certainly the finest flight I ever witnessed. It gave me great confidence in the machine and in the man. Baddeck No. 2 swept on past the laboratory and circled over the Bay a second time. We drove on to the ice at the Oionos shed and watched McCurdy drome around the Bay several times and finally he brought the machine down on the ice making a beautiful landing. I understand that the engine showed no signs of heating although the machine had been in the air for considerably over a quarter of an hour. I have not yet heard the exact duration of the flight. I thought at first that the flight was ending because of over-heating, but McCurdy assures me this was not so and he came down more as a matter of caution than anything else. So far as we could see he might have gone on indefinitely so far as the machine was concerned. It is obvious that he must have experimented considerable cold for I notice that McCurdy’s face bears upon each check a long white streak extending from outer corner of the eye all the way down the cheek. This streak seems to be composed of salt indicating that his eyes had been watering and that the evaporation of the tears had left a streak of salt. I noticed that the special radiator provided for Baddeck No. 2 was not used but that the old square automobile radiator was employed instead. I shall ask McCurdy to explain the reason for this. There was a slight wind from the west during the flight an I had the new smoke-producing apparatus taken out on the Bay to see whether there was any down-draught. The smoke floated off at a slight upward angle showing that no down-draught existed. (Int.) A.G.B.
Hew York Herald March 4th 1910. — CANADIAN BIPLANE IN LONG FLIGHT.— [Special Despatch to The Herald.] Baddeck, Nova Scotia, Thursday.— Mr, J.A.D. McCurdy, whose aeroplane flights here last winter attracted much attention, resumed operation to-day with the biplane, Baddeck No. 2, which promises to surpass anything done last winter with the Silver Dart. Two extraordinary flights were made this morning over the ice of Baddeck Bay, the first flight lasting twenty-five minutes and the second sixteen minutes. The new machine travelled at about forty miles an hour and showed perfect steadiness. The flights described wide circuits of several miles around the bay and most of the time the machine was kept at an altitude of one hundred and fifty feet. The new balancing devices upon which Messrs. McCurdy and Baldwin have been working gave excellent results. The machine was built by the Canadian Aerodrome Company, and the flights were near the home of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, who is actively interested in the development of the new model. Other flights will be made and it is believed here that new world records may be established over the ice within the next fortnight.
The Halifax Herald Friday, March 4, 1910. — Droming Over the Ice 100 Feet in the Air. — Testing of Aerodrome at Baddeck Going on So Successfully That the Head of the United States Signal Service Expresses His Interest in the Experiments. — Baddeck, March 3:— Droming over the ice at Baddeck bay started here a few days ago for the purpose of testing out aerodromes construction by Messr., Baldwin and McCurdy, of the Canadian Aerodrome Company. This morning Douglas McCurdy covered over twenty miles in two beautiful flights in the drome Baddeck number two, flying at an elevation of fifty to a hundred feet in the air. A monoplane has been completed here after the plans of Gardiner G. Hubbard, of Boston, which will be tried out in a few days. Two tetrahedral aerodromes have also been built in Dr. Bell’s experimental laboratory under the superintendency of W.F. Bedwin, and will be tried soon. In all five aerodromes are now ready for trial, three built by the Canadian Aerodrome Company, namely, Baddeck number one and Baddeck number two and the Hubbard monoplane, and two built in Dr. Bell’s laboratory. A telegram has been received from General Allen, chief signal officer of the United States army, expressing his interest in the trails now being made at Baddeck.
The Morning Chronicle. — Halifax, Nova Scotia, March 4, 1910. — SUCCESFUL AIR FLIGHTS AT BADDECK. — Mr. McCurdy, in His Aerodrome, Sailed Through the Air Like a Bird. — Baddeck, N.S., Mch., 3:— Dromeing over the ice on the Brass d’Or Lakes is again getting in full swing. J.A.D. McCurdy, in his aerodrome Baddeck No.2, made two magnificent flights of thirty-five minutes duration, alighting in both cases with the grace of a bird. The weather being so mild all winter, the ice has been in poor condition. Now that it is in shape some great flights are expected in the near future. There are now five machines ready to be tried out, Baddeck No. 1 and Baddeck No. 2, and Mr. Gardiner Hubbard’s monoplane, all built by the Canadian Aerodrome Company, and two other machines built in the experimental laboratory of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, under the superintendency of Mr. W.F. Bedwin, of Sydney, C.B., the Cygnet No. 2 and the new Oionos No. 1……….Droming over the ice at Baddeck is the real thing in winter sport.
1910 March 7th — Monday at B.B.:— Were up early this morning arriving at the shed try seven o’clock. Perfect weather but cloudy. They soon had Baddeck No. II ready for flight and Douglas and Casey on aboard. She carried the double weight as easily as possible and I as not which I soon saw her so steady an attempt at a long flight was made. Plain water had been put in the radiator which had froze and it was decided to try the old one which had been changed to afford better flow. This change made Douglas writ into the air alone making two very pretty flights, at low altitude of 13 and 30 minutes. She was very steady and the radiator toward that it would cool perfectly. Bedwin also had a try Oionos which look extremely will, out and ran her around the ice several times. (Int.) G.G.H.
March 7th 1910 F.W. Baldwin’s Account:— Bedwin tried the Oionos with the small air cooled engine – geared 11 to 30 (approx), diam of the propeller about 7 ¼ ft. She moved along about 12 to 15 m.p.h., & seemed to steer easily. The after starboard wheel came off during one of the runs but the machine came down on the Skid & no damage was done. (Int.) F.W.B.
Boston Evening Transcript March, 8, 1910:— Canadian Records Smashed.— McCurdy, at Baddeck, Carries Passenger, and Also Makes Flight of Half an Hour. Baddeck, N.S., March 8.— All records for aerial flights in Canada were smashed yesterday when J.A.D. McCurdy, with Frederick W. Baldwin as a passenger, piloted the aerodrome Baddeck No. 2 over Bras D’Or Lakes. The Flights were the most successful ever held here. Mr. McCurdy took the seat at the steering wheel on Baddeck No. 2, accompanied by Mr. Baldwin. The motor was started, and after a run nearly seventy yards the machine took the air, carrying the aviators with grace of a bird. Mr. McCurdy keeping at an elevation of from six to eight feet from the ice, circled the bay for about seven minutes, and alighted with ease. They then made two more successful flights together of from six to eight minutes duration. This is the first time a passenger has been carried on any of the machine here. A change of radiators was made, and Mr. McCurdy again took his seat and circled the bay at an elevation of from fifteen to twenty feet for sixteen minutes, and alighted, finding the motor cool and everything in good shape. MrCurdy seating himself at the wheel, turned on the power and again took the air and broke all his previous records by remaining in the air for half an hour, at which time as pre-arranged, he was to receive a signal to come down.
Letter from Alexander Graham Bell to Earl Grey, March 10, 1910 Beinn Bhreagh, near Baddeck Nova Scotia COPY March 10, 1910:— His Excellency Earl Grey Governor-General of Canada, Ottawa, Canada. Dear Earl Grey: I enclose for your information a copy of a letter addressed to the Secretary of the Militia Council by Messrs. Baldwin and McCurdy (March 10, 1910), containing a proposal to sell their two aerodromes, Baddeck No. 1 and Baddeck No. 2,, to the Canadian Government for the sum of $10,000. I am glad to learn from Major Maunsell, who is here, that you received my letter of Dec. 27, 1909 from Washington, D. C., so that you know my views upon this subject. Messrs. Baldwin and McCurdy had intended to have made a somewhat similar offer last year in the event of their making successful flights at Petewawa. On account, however, of the mishap to their drome at Petewawa, they felt it inadvisable to approach the Canadian Government upon the subject until they had successfully demonstrated the capabilities of their dromes to fly. This they have now done; and I beg to enclose photographs of a fine flight made by Mr. Douglas McCurdy in the drome Baddeck No. 2 on March 3. On this occasion he was alone; but he has also demonstrated the capability of the machine to carry two persons. On several occasions he has carried Mr. F. W. Baldwin as a passenger. Yesterday he carried Mr. Baldwin in one flight, Mr. William McDonald in another, and then took Major Maunsell for a drome over the ice on Baddeck Bay. It may seem strange that Messrs. Baldwin and McCurdy should ask the Government to purchase two dromes instead of one; but the reasons will be obvious to you.
They estimate that they will be unable to carry on their factory here without a capital of at least $10,000; and they prefer to raise this amount by the sale of their two machines. They realize that it might be considered an imposition upon the Government to ask $10,000 for one machine; and therefore offer two, as, in their opinion, a fair equivalent for the money, as a charge of $5000 per machine will yield them only a reasonable profit upon the cost of construction. $5000 would not suffice to support their factory but $10,000 would probably be sufficient to enable it at least to exist; because they are saved the expense of acquiring buildings and workshops of their own for one year, as I have placed the facilities of my Laboratory at their disposal for that period of time 3 without charge. They are much elated over the fact that they have already received their first order for an aerodrome. This is a monoplane for Mr. Gardiner G. Hubbard of Boston, Mass. It is now practically completed, and they hope to try it out here in a few days if the ice holds out. They are encouraged to believe that during the course of their next year they may receive other orders for aerodromes from private individuals and from foreign Governments; and that the profits from the sale of these machines may enable them to acquire buildings and machinery of their own, and place the new Canadian industry upon a self-supporting basis. I think it is in every way desirable that the Canadian Government should acquire two aerodromes rather than one; because accidents of various kinds are always liable to occur with the best machines in the hands of inexperienced aviators. With two dromes, an accident to one will not interfere with continuous practice work. One machine will always be available while the other is being repaired. While this seems to be a plausible argument why the Canadian Government should purchase two machines rather than one, the real, and most important reason is that the sum of $10,000 is necessary to aid a new industry to establish itself upon Canadian soil.
Of course if the Canadian Government decides to accept the proposition a larger appropriation than $10,000 will be required; for the Government will have to erect buildings in which to house the aerodromes, do some grading at Petewawa or whatever place may be selected as an aerodrome Park for practice work, and meet the expenses of a staff of experts to be trained as aviators for the Canadian Militia. I do not know what the total expense of a department of aviation will amount to, but I have given you may ideas upon this subject in my letter of December 27, 1909. So far as Messrs. Baldwin and McCurdy are concerned, all that they want is the sum of $10,000 to support their industry during another year. Yours sincerely, (Signed) Alexander Graham Bell PS:— I would emphasize the fact that in purchasing these aerodromes the Government will receive much more than the mere money value of the machine — it will secure the establishment of an aerodrome industry within the Dominion of Canada. This will be of as much advantage to the Canadian Government, as to Messrs. *Baldwin and McCurdy. A.G.B.
March 14, 1910, J.A.D. McCurdy’s Account Monday at Houseboat:— About dusk on Friday (Mar., 11) attempted a flight in aerodrome Baddeck No. 2. We had put on a smaller propeller with a diameter of 7’-4” instead of the 7’-8” once we had had burn using. This promoted the engine to turn over faster giving us more horsepower – Shorter in usage place & left the ice about off Carruth’s wharf. – There was quite a puffy wind from the N.W. h N. & when I tried to make the turn to port I thought the breeze too strong & so effected a landing on the clamper ice about halfway across the bay. The one idea in my mind was to keep going on across of the unsafe condition of the ice & as I could not turn & run latch onto the good ice because a skid would wreck the wheels. I landed straight for the shore at the shakle – Owing this run a tire exploded & the unpredicted wheel was smashed in the rough ice. Slapped just by the shakle & the men skidded up brining a new wheel which was put in place. The Machine was then wheeled home & housed for the night. (Int.) J.A.D.McC.
March 12th:— On the fallowing morning (Mar. 12th) got down to the shed about six o’clock when some of the men had already arrived. We ran the engine a few times & then started off for a trial flight. Had instructed John Mc Dermind to telephone the Point when he saw the machine flying – which he did- Casey Major Maunsell & Hubberd arrived at the finish of the second flight. The engine gave use trouble – We thought it might be mixture troubles & no disconnected the radiator & attached a have a meter to case while we ran motor at shed. She ran oil, giving no trouble at all so we attempted another flight. Motor stopped again & I thought the trouble lay in the fact that the overflow water from the radiator got on the magneto & shorted the circuited. We covered up the magneto but did not thoroughly dry it off – Motor stopped on the next trial. All the flights made now good & no damage sustained. Lt. Gov. Fraser witnessed the Flights & approved much pleasure. (Int.) J.A.D. McC.
Gardiner G. Hubbard’s Account at B.B., March 14th:— On future consideration of the feasibility of employing diedral wing tips to preserve lateral balance it became more and more convinced that they will power practical and that the disadvantage are slighter then they appeared at first glance. The chief of the lateral is the tendency to wide drift due to side winds but I believe that the tipping tendency will be very slight, especially if the dihedral angle is made as great as 60* . It may some prove advisable to make there tips vertical. I do not think however that the latter is necessary. It would also seems in further study, that the lifting action of there wing tips will be greater that those of a similar area placed behind the wing with variable angles of incidence. Side gusts of wind will also have a tendency to elevate the tip on the side they strike there by decreasing its lifting power and at the same time depress the tips on the opposite side there by increasing its power. It is questionable whether the variations will affect the head resistance thereby causing a tendency to turn about the vertical axis. In view of there facts and the advisability of having some directing reeling feature to a machine. I hope to try the experiment as soon as possible. (Int.) G.G.H.
Halifax Chronicle Monday March 14, 1910. — THRILLING FLIGHTS BY AVIATOR McCURDY IN HIS AERODROME. — Lieut.-Governor Fraser Was Among Those Who Witnessed the Experiments at Baddeck, On Saturday—The Aviator Ascended To a Height of 125 Feet, And Then Made a Graceful Landing.—SPEACIAL TO THE MORNING CHRONICLE. — Baddeck, N.S., March 12:— Droming at Baddeck is in daily practice and is drawing visitors from far and near to the scene of activities. Lieut. Governor Fraser of Nova Scotia and son. Hon. W.F. McCurdy and other distinguished visitors arrived at Baddeck on Friday evening and were early on the ice field to witness some magnificent flights by J.A.D. McCurdy, the young Canadian hero of aviation. Mr. McCurdy in a series of flights demonstrated to the large gathering of spectators, flights of from five to one hundred and twenty five feet in height and the spectators were jubilant over the graceful landing made in every flight. Lieut. Governor Fraser was very enthusiastic over the flights this being the first flight of a heavier-than-air machine he had witnessed. Major Maunsell who was to leave here on Friday last was so infatuated with the daily flights that he stayed over until this afternoon and was also very enthusiastic over the flights of today. Major Maunsell left by the steamer Blue Hill this afternoon for Sydney and will leave Sydney on Monday morning for Ottawa. It is presumed much will depend on his report whether the Canadian Government will invest first in Dreadnoughts or airships. It is to be hoped the latter. A thrilling little incident occurred during the day proceedings; William F. Bedwin was trying out Dr. Bell’s Oionos No.1, testing the steering qualities of the machine not for flight. Mr. McCurdy had just made a landing with Baddeck No. 2, seeing the Oionos running full speed, fully a mile in advance of where he landed, Mr. McCurdy turned on the power of his motor and set out in pursuit. To the onlookers behind it looked as if a collision was inevitable, but Mr. McCurdy soon put all beyond doubt and demonstrated if confined to space on the surface, he had the wings of a bird and took to the air where he had unlimited space.
Halifax Herald Monday March 14 1910. — GOVONOR FRASER SEES THE FLIGHTS.— His Honour Much Pleased with the Work of Aerodrome Baddeck No. 2. — Baddeck, March 12:— “Invaluable for Canada to have on hand in time of war.” This was the expression of Governor D.C. Fraser, who was in Baddeck to-day, accompanied by his son Allister, the guest of Alexander Graham Bell, to witness the flights of aerodrome, Baddeck No. 2, from Dr. Bell’s aerial navigation laboratory. With the governor also was Major Maunsell, of the Canadian militia department, who stayed over to witness another day’s flights. Governor Fraser was on the flying ground at seven o’clock this morning in time for the first flight of the day. McCurdy flew up and down, around and around the bay, covering in the eight flights in all about 18 or 19 miles, keeping at a height of from 50 to 100 feet. Citizens of Baddeck and farmers from around the country on foot and in teams flocked to the scene. In one instance, Mr. McCurdy, in his drome, flew close over a man who was hauling a load of hay across the ice. The governor was much excited over the flights and Major Maunsell watched the performance with intense interest. Speaking particularly of the ease with which the aviator brought down the machine, Governor Fraser was very much impressed, “Why,” said his honor, “just think of the different uses these machines could be put to if the Canadian government owned them. Not only would they be imperative in time of war, but they could be used for the purpose of exploration in the north.”
Flight Magazine No. 64. (No.12, Vol.II.) March 19, 1910. Flying in Canada. MR. D.C. FRASER, Governor of Nova Scotia, and Major Maunsell, of the Canadian Militia, witnessed flights with the Baldwin-McCurdy biplane at Baddeck, on the 13th inst. In all, eight flights were made, the total distance covered being about 20 miles, while the average altitude was between 50 and 100 ft.
Aeronautics: The American Magazine of Aerial Locomotion Vol. 6 No. 4., April, 1910. — McCurdy Flying at Baddeck. — The Canadian Aerodrome Co., composed of F. W. Baldwin and J. A. D. McCurdy, has been giving the new biplane, “Baddeck II,” further trials. On March 3 two flights were made over the ice of Bras d’Os Lake, lasting 25 and 16 minutes. On the 8th both Baldwin and McCurdy flew at one time. Three passenger flights were made of 4 to 7 minutes duration. The machine was described in the “Foreign Letter” last issue.
Letter from Alexander Graham Bell to Mabel B. McCurdy, April 22, 1910. —Aviation History 1331 CONNECTICUT AVENUE, WASHINGTON, D. C. April 22, 1910. Miss Mabel B. McCurdy, Baddeck, Nova Scotia, Canada. Dear Miss McCurdy:—
If, as I expect, the Canadian Government should form an Aviation Department in connection with its Militia system, the future development of aviation, especially in Great Britain, will be profoundly affected by what is done in Canada. It has occurred to me that it would be well to prepare a historical statement that would show how the Canadian Aviation Department came into existence, while the matter is still fresh in my mind.
Whether it would be wise to place this at once in the Recorder is a matter for consideration. It would be well in any event to prepare the paper, and file it away. I have not the material here, but you have it in Beinn Bhreagh, and I would like you, if possible, to hunt up the letters I want and send me a complete copy, so that I may prepare the article before I leave. The whole matter originated with my Ottawa Address. I have just received from the Canadian Club of Ottawa a printed volume entitled “Addresses delivered before the Canadian Club of Ottawa, 1903–1909”, edited by Gerald H. Brown, first Vice-President. 2 Ottawa: the Mortimer Press, 1910. My Address, as printed by the Club, is given on pp 181–187, and should go into the Recorder.
Following this Address, I received a letter from the Deputy Minister of Militia which reached Beinn Bhreagh after my departure and was acknowledged by Baldwin and McCurdy. I want a copy of this and Baldwin and McCurdy’s acknowledgement. The document reached me while traveling in Wales, and I acknowledged receipt from there, and stated that I would reply more fully after my return to America, and after I had conferred with Messrs. Baldwin and McCurdy. After my return to America, and after conference with Baldwin and McCurdy I replied to the letter. Want copies of these letters. The next document to quote in the historical statement is a letter written to me by
Earl Grey after his visit to Beinn Bhreagh (you can probably get the date of it from the Recorder) although it is doubtful whether it is given in full there. To this letter I replied from Washington in a personal letter of considerable length. Want copies of these. Earl Grey then wrote to me asking me certain questions to which I replied, December 27, 1909 (I think that is the date). This letter is of importance as it contains my ideas of what the Canadian Government should do.
Next in order should come a telegram from Baldwin and McCurdy to the Militia Council inviting them to send a representative to Baddeck to witness the flights over the ice; and a telegram from Baldwin and McCurdy to Major Maunsell inviting him to come. I think also there was a telegram to Earl Grey about the same time which should be included.
Then the telegraphic replies from Ottawa informing Baldwin and McCurdy that Major Maunsell would come. (We should also have in the proper place copies of telegrams or letters that passed between Baldwin and McCurdy and the Ottawa authorities that led to the Petewawa visit.) Next should come the letters of Major Maunsell to Baldwin and McCurdy informing them privately that the Militia Council had made some proposition which was now under consideration by the Privy Council, and the reply of Baldwin and McCurdy. That is as far as we can go at present in the preparation of a historical statement. Should be much obliged if you can hunt up and send me a copy of all these letters and telegrams, arranged in proper order. The Recorder contains information of what happened at Petewawa and also a description of the flights over the ice at Beinn Bhreagh when Major Maunsell was present, so it will be unnecessary to send any material concerning these matters. Not necessary to give anything that is in the Recorder.
Please rush this matter as it takes so long for letters to pass between Beinn Bhreagh and Washington, and I want to have my historical statement prepared before I leave for my trip round the world. It will then be safe for preservation should I never return. Please rush this matter. I enclose the forward under separate cover the book of Addresses before the Canadian Club of Ottawa so that you can take my address from that for the Recorder. Yours sincerely, Alexander Graham Bell Per C.R.C.
Aeronautics: The American Magazine of Aerial Locomotion Vol. 6 No. 5. May, 1910. — Canadian Monoplane Flies:— The monoplane completed by the Canadian Aerodrome Co. for Gardiner G. Hubbard of Boston has had its first successful trials. After waiting some days for propitious weather, on the morning of April 5 nine beautiful flights were made over the ice of Bras d’Or lake, in Nova Scotia, near Dr. A. Graham Bell’s estate. These lasted from 10 to 15 seconds each, elevation about 10 ft. It worked splendidly and was handled so well by Mr. Hubbard in these, his maiden flights, that no damage to the machine resulted either in landing or rising. — DESCRIPTION OF MACHINE:— In this machine are embodied features found in both the Bleriot and Antoinette types. Cleanness of lines has been the goal; and to arrive at this end the engine has been placed completely inside the body and the propeller shaft driven by chain and sprocket in the ratio of 3 to 5. The power plant is identically the same as that used in the Baddeck II. viz., a Kirkham 6-cylinder motor, water cooled, developing 40 h. p. at 1,400 and 48 at 2,000 r. p. m. The weight of this motor is 320 pounds. The only difference so far as the propeller is concerned lies in the fact that the monoplane propeller pulls, while the Baddeck II pushes. The dimensions are as follows: Spread, 34 ft., and length, 30 ft. 2 in. This gives a total supporting surface of 260 sq. ft. and the weight of the machine without aviator, but including the engine, about 1,000 pounds. This gives a flying weight ratio of 3.8 pounds per square foot of surface. The ice is now completely gone and the winter’s program is over. Three out of the five machines built by Messrs. McCurdy and F. W. Baldwin have flown.
Aeronautics: The American Magazine of Aerial Locomotion Vol. 6 No. 6. June, 1910. The “Aero Club of Canada” has been duly incorporated by special act of the Council and Assembly of Canada by the Hon. Duncan C. Fraser, J.A.D. McCurdy, F.W. Baldwin, Hon. Wm. F. McCurdy, and others. There is no capital stock and no member of the corporation is liable for any debts or obligations of the corporation. “Certificates of Contribution” are provided for to be given any member who contributes toward the property or funds of the body. These Certificates entitle the holders to a proportional part of the proceeds of liquidation should such take place. The first meeting of the club was held on May 6th, at which six members were present. J.A.D. McCurdy was elected president; F.W. Baldwin, 1st vice-president; H. Percy Blanchard, 2nd vice-president; Hon. W.F. McCurdy, 3d vice-president; J.A.D. McCurdy, secretary and K.J. McKay, treasurer. An architect is drawing plans for a club room building. The headquarters of the club will be at Baddeck, Nova Scotia.
La Grande Semaine d’Aviation de Montréal June 25 – July 4, 1910; Montreal Aeroplane Aviation Meet June 25th to July 4th 1910:—
North American Press Despatch. — WRIGHTES WIN TESTS — Carry Off Day’s Honors at Aviation Meet in Montreal. — Montreal, June 28:— Eight successful flights were made by heavier than air machines at the aviation park last evening. The Wright machines carried off the honors of the day for the greatest altitude flight. Walter Brookins made a preliminary try at his old world’s record for height. He went up steadily for 20 minutes and climbed until he reached a height of 3,500 feet according to readings of an instrument on his machine. Brookins floated over Lake St. Louis and from his greatest height started down on a long slide to the aviation park with his power shut off. He landed perfectly in front of the stand. La Chapple, also in a Wright 40-horsepower machine, made the swiftest flight, circling the course twice in three minutes, 29 seconds, the total distance being about 12,100 feet.
Boston Evening Transcript June 29, 1910:— Brookins Up 4000 Feet. — In The Wright Craft He Also Flies in a Thirty-Mile Wind. — Montreal, June 29:— The third day of Montreal’s aviation meet was delayed by a thirty-mile-an-hour breeze which kept up until 5.30 last evening. The two and a half hours which fallowed were full of excitement, however. Walter Brookins of the Wright team was the hero of the day. First he started with great daring before the heavy wind had gone down an after remaining up nine minutes 50 seconds, under most trying win an sum conditions, descended. He covered seven miles and in the descent cut a tremendous downward path before pulling his machine to a slant to alight. In a second ascents he mounted to an altitude of approximately 4000 feet, the record being 4500 feet and was in the air 20 minutes and 30 seconds. He received an ovation. Count e Lesseps made two exhibition ascents. On his second flight he ascended higher than he has yet done in Canada.
Aeronautics: The American Magazine of Aerial Locomotion Vol. 7 Montreal, June 28-July 5, 1910. — BY H. K. HITCHCOCK:— The “meet” was from one viewpoint, the scientific, eminently successful, and as a direct result an impetus to the interest in and study of aeronautics has been started in this great country. Financially the meet was a failure, the expenses running to some $40,000., but the flying was good—continuous every day of the meeting, all done by the Wright and Bleriot machines. J.A.D. McCurdy only got up once in the early morning and quite wrecked their Baddeck II in landing with the wind. McCurdy was unfortunate the whole week. He had trouble getting his machine on the grounds to begin with, and assembling was delayed by reason of no shelter. G.G. Hubbard, of Boston, was induced to come at a late date with his monoplane, built by the Canadian Aerodrome Co. of Baddeck, without an engine, which had to be sent for to Baddeck and it did not arrive until the last of the week. The Wright team, Brookins, La Chappelle, Johnstone and Coffyn, all flew well. Count de Lesseps was a striking feature with his two Blerlots. A 50 h. p. Gnome engined type XII and the smaller XI with the Anzani 30 h.p. motor. His 30-mile trip to and over the city of Montreal in 49 minutes was the great event of the exhibition. He used the big “Scarabee” with air bags, the same equipment he used in his cross-Channel flight. Fred Owen and Cromwell Dixon, with their dirigible attracted small attention. Dixon tried a new propeller on the advice of Knabenshue and increased its speed. The airship escaped and burst, on the fourth day of the meet. This made quite a stir, as the people could not tell whether he was in it or not, lie stopped the motor by accident, descended, lumped too soon and missed the guide rope. Johnny Mack and one of Ed. Hutchinson’s men made daily parachute drops from hot-air balloons. Wm. Carruthers, vice-president of the International Aviation Association, which promoted the meet bought a Bleriot XI and imported one Miltjen’s from’ France to fly it. Miltjen’s experience “at flying was evidently obtained at a correspondence” school. On his first and only flight the machine jumped into the air and then gracefully dug its nose in the dirt. Cromwell Dixon, who had never been in an aeroplane before, then tried it and made a highly sensational and wild flight, narrowly escaping accident, but brought it safely down.
SOME OF THE FLIGHTS:— The feature of the first day was Brookins’ 2000-ft. altitude flight, while de Lesseps and Johnstone were the other aviators. On the second day de Lesseps in a trial for speed lost to La Chappelle, while Brookins made another altitude flight of 1650 ft. On the 28th Johnstone was up 45 minutes, and Brookins flew to a height of 1360 ft., and was up 20 minutes. The start oil the rail was timed, too, at 5 ½ seconds till the machine was in the air. On June 29 Ralph Johnstone flew for 40 minutes and Brookins was up 21 minutes, flying to a height of 2,450 ft. This was after carrying up de Lesseps for a 13-minute trip. Early in the morning McCurdy made a flight in the “Baddeck II,” but landing outside the grounds in the tall grass, the machine was partially wrecked. R. Timberlake, who had bought a Bleriot XI, essayed his first flight. With a novice’s inexperience, after getting off the ground, could not stop in time to save hitting the grandstand. The ” next day Johnstone flew for 25 minutes and Brookins took up Count de Lesseps’ brother to a height of 1,140 ft. in a flight of 25 1/2 minutes. Then he made a trip alone up 2.000 ft.
3,130 FEET IN AIR:— On July 1 Brookins again made a high and sensational ascent, reaching 3,130 ft. in a flight covering 45 minutes.
DE LESSEPS FLIES OVER CITY:—The most sensational flight of the meeting was de Lessens” journey over three bodies of water and Mt. Royal in a continuous flight around Montreal’s City Hall and back to the aviation grounds, a round trip of 30 miles. The flight lasted 49 minutes. His face was screened from the oil of the Gnome engine by a thin wire gauze mask.
BROOKINS SETS CANADIAN RECORD:— On the same day, Brookins ascended to 3,510 ft. The meet closed on July 5, with small attendance and few flights. Some of the Wright machines were going to Toronto, but two had to be rushed away, so these were flown from the aviation grounds to the railroad station, over the hills and trees. The landing spot had not been investigated and when Brookins and passenger flew over they saw they had but a very small place to land. Steering sharply down into tall grass, the latter caught in the wires and corners, turning the machine face down and breaking the front construction. The second machine they flew over made a safe landing.
Observations & Conclusions To This Chapter:— Circa ending April CAC received the memo, from the Canadian High Brows and Brass, that regrettably the majority desire, need or funds were not available, declined the purchase of both Dromes, Baddeck No. I & II., amounting, $5.000 for each flying machine or, $10,000.00 for both. There are no records supporting Baddeck No. I flew or was used in late 1909 or throughout 1910, I say again, nada. Noted, Prof. Alec Bell does states in his sales pitch too the CDN., Gov., etc., both flying machines were available: I certainly question Baddeck No. I was ready for flight. By this time Bell had funded the company c $15,000 – $ 20,000, considering G.G. Hubbard II monoplane, nickname “mike” construction commenced c Feb., 1910, the company some moths later was no longer feasible. CAC was flying on a shoe string budget, while McCurdy crashed Baddeck No. II., a score of times or failure with parts, engine, Drome Baddeck No. I was scavenged. On May 20th 1910 the Bell’s & Baldwin’s commenced a world tour registered and sailing on the S.S. Masuka boarding at Victoria, B.C., their main destination was Australia.
Baddeck No. II last flight was at La Grande Semaine d’Aviation de Montréal, or Montreal’s Aeroplane Meet, June 25 – July 4, 1910, — The Canadian Aerodrome Company by this time was in bad shape, indeed: “J.A.D. McCurdy only got up once in the early morning and quite wrecked their Baddeck II in landing with the wind. McCurdy was unfortunate the whole week. He had trouble getting his machine on the grounds to begin with, and assembling was delayed by reason of no shelter. G.G. Hubbard, of Boston, was induced to come at a late date with his monoplane, built by the Canadian Aerodrome Co. of Baddeck, without an engine, which had to be sent for to Baddeck and it did not arrive until the last of the week.” McCurdy with other aviators were compensated a percentage on ticket sales for their appearance, stated too spectators and correspondents the drome would be ready for flight at the Toronto Air Meet: read accounts of the day, no mention of making an appearance with Baddeck No. II., at Toronto: How could he; onlookers rushed the drome when it crashed wind up in the tall grass, “many small pieces of the wrecked aeroplane were removed by souvenir hunters.” At Montreal the drome was crated, transported back to B.B., and stored, with no money or parts the aeroplane in shambles, McCurdy pondered his next move without Prof. Alec Bell’s financial funding and guidance. At this point the Canadian Aerodrome Company flew under the setting sun into obscurity, every year Aerial Experimental Association members would celebrate at B.B. the anniversary of their formation. Curtiss, McCurdy, Baldwin contributed with the continuance of Bell’s aeronautic experiments, etc., carried out once he returned from his world tour, until ca 1920, passed away in 1922.
P.B.A., The chapters covering July 1910 – 1915, are 90% finished which fallows Curtiss & McCurdy aviation exploits, for the moment I’ll leave you with some snippets. McCurdy only dragged his heels for a few days at B.B., contacting Cutriss concerning his misfortunes and without hesitation Glenn offered John a lucrative business opportunity. McCurdy hastily responded, packed his bags entrained destination Hammondsport N.Y., USA. The Curtiss’ Flying Circus was organized; McCurdy signed a contract and received a brand new biplane complements of his aviation brother, in turn appearing across North American Aviation Meets. From July 23 until ending December 1910 both made approximately 2 ½ times invested by the Bell’s in both aviation ventures. On average Curtiss made $3,500 – $6,000 while McCurdy $700.00 – $1,300 per appearance, not counting cash prizes, aviation advertising, sales commissions of Curtiss’ Engines, bi planes. Included with other aviators they also pocketed from aviation magazines, advertising for other manufacturing companies. The amount for 1911-12 was unbelievable; just for the six months in 1910 in today’s money do you know how much that represents, wow, indeed. With Bell and Baldwin in Australia and McCurdy with a new contract, biplane, the Canadian Aviation Company chapter was closed, ended ca July 15, 1910 when McCurdy signed the contract with Curtiss or when Baddeck No. II crashed at Montreal’s Aeroplane Meet. When the professor and Baldwin returned from their world tour continued with Bell’s aviation experiments, in which Baldwin, McCurdy and Curtiss contributed until post First World War.
Aeronautics: The American Magazine of Aerial Locomotion, 1910. — Omaha, July 23-27:— By T. T. Tuttle. The Omaha (Neb.) meeting, on July 23 to 27, was held under the auspices of the Aero Club of Nebraska, and was particularly interesting owing to the fact that every type of craft that navigates or sails the air participated. There were two hot-air balloons, a captive, a free balloon, a dirigible balloon and three Curtiss aeroplanes in the air each day. The chief attractions, however, were aviators Glenn H. Curtiss, .T. C. Mars. J. A. D. McCurdy and Eugene B. Ely. The weather made it a difficult task for the aviators to open the first day with their best work. Weather conditions on the second day were about the same as the day before, but in spite of this handicap all aviators made flights. The program closing with a spectacular race between Curtiss and Mars. In the evening the J. S. Dirigible No. 1 left Fort Omaha with Lieut, laskell in charge and build plainly seen room the aviation field.
Lexington, Ky.— J. A. D. McCurdy filled the Curtiss date at the Lexington, Ky., State Fair, Aug. 7-13, making several flights each day of the exhibition. Grand Rapids. Mars (Curtiss) was to have flown here July 16-17, but the high wind prevented flights both days.
New York, Aug. 19-21. — Glenn H. Curtiss, J. C. Mars, J. A. D. Mc-Curdy, C. F. Willard and Eugene Ely are scheduled to give a 3-day exhibition at the Sheepshead Bay racetrack, New York. Aug. 19-21. Eugene B. Ely, a Curtiss aviator, began practicing at Sheepshead Bay racetrack in preparation for the exhibition on the 10th, using for the first time the 8 cylinder Curtiss engine which is slowly being installed in all the exhibition machines. J. A. Douglas McCurdy, former member of the Aerial Experiment Association, who with F. W. Baldwin, another member, formed the Canadian Aerodrome Co. at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, has signed a contract with Glenn Curtiss to fly a Curtiss machine. His first appearance was at Omaha, July 23-28. From there he went to Lexington, Ky., Aug. 7-13. Eugene Ely of Portland, Ore., who has been flying a Curtiss machine for E. Henry Wemme, Curtiss agent of that city, is another addition to the Curtiss troupe of aviators. Augustus Post, former secretary of the Aero Club of America, has bought a Curtiss machine under a special arrangement, and will fill exhibition contracts wherever they do not conflict with Curtiss’ interests, or will fill engagements obtained Curtiss. He will begin practicing under the tutorship of Charles V. Willard, using a machine which Willard has been putting in shape in the Aeronautical Society’s shed at Mineola. Clifford B. Harmon has ordered a fast machine from Glenn Curtiss, in which it is expected he will install his Gnome engine for trial.