Canadian Aerodrome Company, McCurdy & Baldwin’s, Baddeck No. I – II, Feb., 1910 Original Accounts.

Aeronautics — American Magazine of Aeronautics Vol. 6 No. 2 February 1910. Boston Man Buys Canadian Aeroplane:— The Canadian Aerodrome Co. is now building a monoplane somewhat similar to Latham’s for Gardiner Greene Hubbard of Boston. It will be remembered that the Canadian Aerodrome Co. was formed by Messrs. F. W. Baldwin and J. A. D. McCurdy when the Aerial Experiment Association came to an end on March 31, last year. The company has built two machines, called the “Baddeck No. I” and “Baddeck No. II,” on the model of the previous machines of the A. E. A., with improvements, of course. A short time ago Mr. McCurdy was in the air for over 20 minutes in the “Baddeck No. II,” using a commercial automobile engine not built especially for aviation work, at their grounds in the Baddeck River Valley, about four miles from the town of Baddeck, Nova Scotia, where they have the use of a flat meadow. Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, whose home is at Beinn Bhreagh, near Baddeck, together with the Canadian Aerodrome Co., will, as soon as the Bras d’Or Lake freezes up, have quite an aviation meet of their own. There are no less than five machines to be tried out. One, the old “Cygnet II,” a “drome” of pure tetra-hedral construction: 2, a “drome” upon the Oionos model, in which the framework is of tetrahedral construction and horizontal surfaces as well as oblique are employed; 3 and 4, the two “aerodromes” of the Canadian Aerodrome Co., the “Baddeck I and II.”

Canadian Aerodrome Company Blueprints of G.G. Hubbard Monoplane, Mike, 1910.

Canadian Aerodrome Company Blueprints of G.G. Hubbard Monoplane, Mike, 1910.

Extracted from Aeronautics — American Magazine of Aeronautics 1910. THE HUBBARD MONOPLANE, G. GARDINER HUBBARD and F. Tracy

Hubbard, of Ipswich, Mass., are new, makers of aeroplanes, putting on the market a monoplane, type “Hubbard IV.” A special feature is its ease of assembling and taking down. It can be put up in two hours and disassembled in a half-hour less. It is a sturdy looking machine, combining prominent features of several well-known machines.

The wings resemble those of the Bleriot, and the same for the body framing. The aluminum-covered nose and placing of the engine is that of the Tellier, the running gear looks like the Hanriot, and the horizontal tail and elevator takes after the Antoinette. The skid under the tail is like that under the Farman. The two-wheeled arrangement will probably be replaced by a four-wheeled truck, with the wheels arranged similar to the Farman. Of its predecessors, one of which had a Gnome engine. No. 1 and No. 3 flew. The other was smashed in a trial and was not rebuilt on the same plan. The first machine was built in 1909 by F. W. Baldwin and J. A. D. McCurdy at Baddeck, Dr. Bell’s summer place.

  • Planes; are covered with either Naiad cloth or Wilson & Silsby fabric. Spread 34 ft. and are 8 ft. fore and aft at greatest dimension. These are guyed to the running gear by double Roebling cables adjusted by turnbuckles of fine design. There is a slight dihedral angle to the wings, 1.5 cm. to the meter. The fabric, where necessary, is laced; not through eyelets, but around hooks.
  • Stability; is secured through ailerons hinged at the outer rear beam of the wings. These are operated by cable over pulleys and are interconnected so that when one is pulled down the other is pulled up, as in the Curtiss.
  • Power Plant. Elbridge “Featherweight” engines of 40 h. p. and El Arco radiator. Gibson propeller. Mr. Hubbard is enthusiastic about his engine, which he bought second-hand and was tested on the block for an hour and gave 48.7 h. p. average.
  • Control. This is by means of a post mounted on a unique universal joint with wheel at the top. This is used for the elevator and for the ailerons. The rudder is operated by the feet. The post is swung from side to side for the ailerons; in fact, it acts exactly as the Bleriot control.
  • Running’ Gear. The wheels are Goodrich, 26×2 ½ in., with Goodyear Farman-type shock rubbers. The total weight is about 700 lbs.
Canadian Aerodrome Company, G.G. Hubbard's monoplane, Mike, 1910.

Canadian Aerodrome Company, G.G. Hubbard’s monoplane, Mike, 1910.

Beinn Bhreagh Items — Social Aero Club Feb. 23:— Celebration of Anniversary of First Flight Last night (Feb. 23) the Social Aero Club of Beinn Bhreagh held a meeting here (at Beinn Bhreagh, near Baddeck, Nova Scotia) to celebrate the anniversary of the first flight of a heavier than air flying machine in Canada — the successful flight of Douglas McCurdy in the aerodrome (airplane) Sliver Dart, Feb. 23, 1909, over the ice in Baddeck Bay. The Naval policy of Canada was discussed by Mr. Macfarlane, Mr. Baldwin and others.  (Int.) AGB.

Feb., 24:— Dr. Bell invited the Social Aero Club of Beinn Bhreagh to meet here last night as it was the anniversary of the first flight of a heavier-than-air flying-machine in Canada. Present — Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, Honoary President; Mr. W.E. Rudderham, Presedent; Mr. Charles C. Byrnes, Treasurer; Mr. J.A.D. McCurdy, Secretary pro-tem; Mr. M. McFarlane; Mr. Percy Manchester; Mr. John G. Davidson; Mr. Gardiner G. Hubbard; Mr. F.W. Baldwin; Mr. Karl Sparlings: Mr. J. McIver; Mr. John McLean. After the usual preliminaries the President said that the debate, which was to have taken place at the last meeting, had been postpone and would be on that night. The subject of the debate was — “Whether Canada should or should not build a navy in Canada.”

Feb., 24:— Douglas McCurdy proposes to try a flight in of aerodrome (airplane) Baddeck No. 2 tomorrow (Feb. 25) to test out the endurance of the engine with its new spark plugs.

C.A.C. First Flights of 1910 Flying Around Baddeck Bay, Nova Scotia Feb. 25th.

Feb. 25:— The drome (airplane) Baddeck No. 2 was taken out upon the ice on Baddeck Bay this morning. Mr. Baldwin is here and as I was not present during the tests, I will ask him to dictate an account of what happened. (Int.) A.G.B.

Mr. Douglas McCurdy has just come in and so I shall ask him to give his own independent account of what has been going on this morning before he reads Mr. Baldwin’s notes.  (Int.) A.G.B.

1910, Feb. 28, Beinn Bhreagh Recorder— CANADIAN AERODROME COMPANY First Flights of the Year 1910.

Feb. ed(25th):— The first flights of the year 1910 took place Friday lab. 25 on the ice in Baddeck Bay with drome Baddeck No. 2:— J.A.D. McCurdy aviator. A short flight was made in the morning with a slight wind from the East or Northeast blowing from the Beinn Bhreagh side of the Bay. As the machine seems to be acting queerly further trails were postponed. In the afternoon (Feb. 25) when the wind conditions seemed to be about the same an in the morning Dr. Bell made experiments with smoke to ascertain whether there was a down-draught and obtained unmistakable evidence that the wing was blowing down hill.  In the evening of Saturday Feb. 25 the wind was from the North blowing from the distant side of the Bay. Three successful flights were then made by Mr. McCurdy in Baddeck No. 2. The fallowing are notes by Mr. McCurdy, Mr. Baldwin and Dr. Bell. (Int.)  M.B. McC.

Flight of Feb. 25, Baldwin’s Account:— The drome Baddeck No. 2 was taken out upon the ice on Baddeck Bay this morning, and John ran her down on the ice towards the warehouse about as far as the laboratory wharf. He then turned round and came back towards the big shed putting her nicely into the air and flew for about 100 yards and began to turn to the left. The turn was a little too sharp, and the inside wing touched, so John, after straightening her up, shut off the motor. As there was a little wind blowing down the hill from the East we decide to just run the machine along the ice. John took her for about five minutes. The water boiled a little bit, but the engine showed no signs of overheating. We decided to balance up the wing tips which were not adjusted. The angle came a little more an one side than the other and the yoke wasn’t in the centre. (Int.)  F.W.B.

Flight of Feb. 25, McCurdy’s Account:— We took her up about off the Lodge wharf there, and started down the shore towards the head of the Bay. Rose about off the Silver-Dart shed when immediately the machine spun around to the left and landed facing the other way. We thought that this suddenly turning around might have been due to a little puff of East wind, and to the fact that the wing tips prove to be out of the normal position both having slightly a positive angle. When the aviator moved to the high side, starboard, the port wing would offer a greater drift than the starboard wing. We decided not to try another flight until the wind went down; and so for the sake of practice I ran the machine around the Bay (on the ice) four times in about ten minutes.  (Int.) J.A.D. McC.

Canadian Aerodrome Company, F.W. Baddeck No. II, at Bentick Farm, Big Baddeck, N.S., 10th Oct., 1909.

Canadian Aerodrome Company, F.W. Baddeck No. II, at Bentick Farm, Big Baddeck, N.S., 10th Oct., 1909.

Separating Historical Facts From Folklore:— Mainstream recycled online, historian/author accounts concerning C.A.C., are vague, erroneous and questionable, although at times they get it right, some examples as fallows:—

 *The company was established by Frederick W. “Casey” Baldwin and J.A.D. McCurdy in 1909, with the financial backing of Alexander Graham Bell. The company was headquartered in Baddeck, Nova Scotia at the Kite House at Bell‘s Beinn Bhreagh estate. [1] Source: “Baddeck No. 1.” Riverview Rural High School. Retrieved: 12 May 2012.

Playing it safe, historians/authors, etc., popular narrative, claims C.A.C. H.Q., was located in Baddeck at Beinn Bhreagh estate; while going on a limb, Cape Breton Riverview Rural High School, retrieved: 12 May 2012, on Wiki claims, established at the “kite house.” The latter could be problematic, main source is a high school article, and Beinn Bhreagh estate is not located in or part of Baddeck, and that’s not debatable. It’s factual the “building formally known as the ‘kite house’ on the flying field at the Laboratory,” stored kites, suspended from the rafters with parts of Cygnet II re-modified, being constructed at Prof., Bell’s Laboratory. CAC first HQ was the ‘kite house,’ however only recorded by McCurdy on the 27th – 28th Aug., 1909, documents suggest CAC HQ was where ever the Boy’s were mainly located. Per say, the old houseboat; Bentick Farm, Big Baddeck; Petawawa Camp, in the latter at the ‘new’ houseboat with a glass bottom floor and sleeping/living quarters for Prof. Alec G. Bell.

1909, Aug. 28 SOME FACTS CONCERNING THE CANADIAN AERODROME COMPANY AND ITS WORK: by J.A. Douglas McCurdy Aug. 27:— The Aerial Experiment Association which expired by time limitation on March 31, 1909, had performed a certain work. It was fully realized that, although the different steps had gone under the head of “experimental work”, still the machines embodied the essential features which go to make up not only a practical but a commercial aerodrome. It was never the intention of the Association, however, to enter into this field of commerce. That was left to be the work of some Company organized specially for this purpose. Mr. Bell suggested that two of the members of the A.E.A. — F.W. Baldwin J.A.D. McCurdy — should work together as a company and quietly build and produce a machine such as they would like to sell to the Canadian or British Government. Mr. Bell further proposed that he should loan the Company sufficient money to construct two machines; this money to be paid back upon the completion of the first sale. The name finally adopted was “The Canadian Aerodrome Company” and their headquarters were established at Beinn Bhreagh in the building formally known as the “kite house” on the flying field at the Laboratory. The first thing to be done was to decide upon the general design, dimensions, lines, etc. to be followed in the construction of the machines. The general design of the Silver-Dart was decided upon and its form adopted as a standard model. One of the greatest departures, however, was in using trussed ribs which allowed of three distinct advantages.

Notes by J.A.D. McCurdy, 1909, June 17 Thursday At Beinn Bhreagh. June 16, 1909:— We started assembling the wings of the C.A.C. No. I to-day and in a very short time will have the two bottom wings assembled. The diagonal wiring in this plane through the trussed ribs comes very nicely. We have put in the ordinary Monot copper wire instead of waiting for our nickel plated wire which has been very much delayed in its preparation, assured by A.C. Thompson & Co. that it will arrive by Marion on Thursday. J.A.D. McC.

EVENTS ON BEINN — BHREAGH, July 2, Friday:— I Mr. Bell visited the Aerodrome Factory of McCurdy and Baldwin and saw their aerodrome first aerodrome, Baddeck No. I, in a nearly finished condition. Also which was approaching completion. He also inspected Beinn Bhreagh Laboratory and saw the front of Cygnet II which has now been arranged to be flown as a kite.

 A.G. Bell, July 23, 1909:— Now that Mr. F.W. Baldwin and Mr. Douglas McCurdy (the consulting Engineers of Beinn Bhreagh Laboratory) are at Petawawa, and likely to be absent from Beinn Bhreagh for an indefinite period, I cannot obtain their assistance in Laboratory matters unless we have some form of Bulletin to keep them in touch with Laboratory work. At the same time, I am unwilling to fetter myself by undertaking regular issues of a Bulletin; and have therefore decided to start a record book which will be issued, a few pages at a time, as convenient to me: The book to be known as THE BEINN BHREAGH RECORDER. Vol. I will be commenced at once.

* After construction, Baddeck No. 1 was disassembled and shipped to Petawawa, Ontario for tests by the Canadian Army. The Canadian Aerodrome Company had hopes to land a military contract. Baddeck No. 1 was assembled in Petawawa by 6 August 1909. The first flight of the Baddeck No. 1 successfully took place at Petawawa on 11 August 1909. A distance of 100 metres was achieved but engine problems resulted in curtailing further flights that day. On the next day, the second flight was short in duration and ended in a rough landing that damaged a wing and the landing gear. Military officials were not impressed and the Baddeck No. 1 was shipped back to Baddeck.[2] “Baddeck 1 / Le Baddeck 1.” Canadian Aeronautical Preservation Association Inc., 2009. Retrieved: 13 May 2012.

The CAPAI is off by one day lacking clarity, dismisses the Silver Dart, as for tests by the Canadian Army, not quite.

 BADDECK NO. I., TAKES THE AIR. 12th Aug., 1909. Aug. 13:— A night message from McCurdy, received this morning, announces that the aerodrome “Baddeck No. I” successfully took the air yesterday afternoon (Aug. 12) at Petawawa, Ontario. In this telegram Mr. McCurdy says:— Petewawa. Aug. 12: — Baddeck No. I made successful jump this afternoon about one hundred yards. Control sensitive. Action good. Power plant satisfactory. Complete staff from Ottawa here. Took your advice. Will try jump again to-morrow. (Signed) J.A.D. McCurdy.

SECOND FLIGHT OF BADDECK NO. I., 13th August, 1909. August 14:— The following night message from Baldwin and McCurdy was received here this morning:— August 13: — In trial this evening machine proved tail heavy, and slid down backward after travelling two hundred feet, breaking running gear, and rear of bottom surface. Nobody injured. (Signed) Baldwin and McCurdy.

he International Aviation Tournament At Belmont Park, Long Island New York, Oct., 22 to 30th 1910.

The International Aviation Tournament At Belmont Park, Long Island New York, Oct., 22 to 30th 1910.

*Subsequently, the Baddeck No. 1 and Baddeck No. 2 were built by the Canadian Aerodrome Company, the newly formed company that Baldwin and McCurdy established in March 1909.[3] Molson and Taylor 1982, p. 22.

Unlike AEA, there are no records establishing a precise date, as for ending March, there’s no document, evidence supporting that narrative. By 2nd April all correspondence between Bell and the Government no mention Of the name. Requests from “two young Canadians, Baldwin and McCurdy, are going right ahead to manufacture at their own expense such an aerodrome as they think would be of use for army purposes, and that when completed and tested they propose to offer it to the Canadian Government.” The only records I’ve uncovered are by 19th May, the name Canadian Aerodrome Company is used in letters, notes, etc. “Mr. Bell suggested that two of the members of the A.E.A. — F.W. Baldwin J.A.D. McCurdy — should work together as a company and quietly build and produce a machine such as they would like to sell to the Canadian or British Government……. The name finally adopted was “The Canadian Aerodrome Company.”

Letter from Alexander Graham Bell to Mabel Hubbard Bell: —Prof. Alec Bell’s returns from Ottawa believing the government will finically support the ‘Boys’ “Beinn Bhreagh, near Baddeck, Nova Scotia 2nd April, 1909. — Dear Mabel:— Things look very hopeful for Douglas and Casey. After the conversation that I have held with His Excellency Earl Grey and with Mr. Fielding, Canadian Minister of Finance, there can be no doubt that both the Canadian Government and the British Government will afford encouragement and assistance to the manufacture of aerodromes within the British Empire or Canada by British subjects or Canadians………….

 Letter from Earl Grey to Alexander Graham Bell: “Government House, Ottawa. 7th  April 1909. — Dear Dr. Graham Bell, I am much obliged to you for your letter, and for the welcome news it contains that the two young Canadians, Baldwin and McCurdy, are going right ahead to manufacture at their own expense such an aerodrome as they think would be of use for army purposes, and that when completed and tested they propose to offer it to the Canadian Government. I am sending a copy of your letter to Mr. Fielding and to Sir Frederick Borden Minister of Militia, and I hope that His Majesty’s Canadian Government may see their way to give these young Canadians such support as will enable them to prove the superiority of their machine over all competitors. Yours truly, Grey”

Letter from M.L. Fielding to Alexander Graham Bell: Minister of Finance is interested, Ottawa, 7th April, 1909. — Dear Dr. Bell, I beg to acknowledge receipt of your letter of the 3rd instant. Owing to the pressure of many matters upon the attention of the Government, I have not been able to bring before my colleagues as fully as I desired the suggestions that have been offered as to the employment of the services of these young gentlemen in the building of an airship for the Canadian Government. I shall avail myself of the earliest opportunity of having the matter fully considered. Yours faithfully,  M.L. Fielding”

CANADIAN GOVERNMENT AVIATION NEWS Letter, Militia Council to Bell Ottawa, 7th May, 1909, Sir:— On the occasion of your addressing the Canadian Club of Ottawa on the subject of Aerial Navigation you were good enough to draw the attention of the Canadian Government to the work of Messrs. Douglas McCurdy and F. W. Baldwin in that line and to suggest that something should be done to secure their services for Canada and to assist them, if possible, in the pursuit of their studies of the art……..

Baldwin and McCurdy to Militia Council Baddeck, N.S., 14, May, 1909 Secretary Militia Council, Ottawa, Canada. Dear Sir:— Your letter No. H.Q. 6978.4 addressed to Dr. Bell has been referred to us by his Secretary. Dr. Bell is in Washington and sails for Europe on Saturday, May 15, where he will remain for a period of perhaps three weeks.

We appreciate the offer of the Minister in Militia Council in permitting us to make trials of our aerodromes at the Military grounds at Petawawa and will be glad to avail ourselves of the opportunity.

Notes by J.A.D. McCurdy and Frederick W. Baldwin, 19th May, Wednesday At Beinn Bhreagh. THE CANADIAN AERODROME COMPANIE’S NOTES. May 18, 1909:— .

 

*After the loss of the AEA Silver Dart and the major damage to the Baddeck No. 1, Baddeck No. 2, essentially a copy of the earlier aircraft, was assembled in Baddeck.[5] Molson and Taylor 1982, p. 159.

It’s factual, with the loss of the Silver Dart, and major damage to Baddeck No.I.,  Baddeck No.II was constructed, assembled at Professor Bell’s Laboratory and Kite House at Beinn Bhreagh estate, which is ‘NEAR’ and certainly not part of the Municipality of Baddeck.

 

*On 23 February 1910, with Baddeck No. 1 repaired, McCurdy made its first post-repair flight of 90 meters off the ice on Baddeck Bay. In March 1910, Baddeck No. 2 was flown over Baddeck Bay, with McCurdy at the controls[6] “The ‘Silver Dart’ Legacy: Alexander Graham Bell’s Flying Machines of the Future A Chronology.” Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site of Canada (Parks Canada).

It’s to be noted Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site of Canada (Parks Canada: With Madame Madeline Harvey seating in the pilots chair and Madame Valerie Mason as her co-pilot, are considered experts in Prof. Alec G. Bell’s life, etc., etc. I’ve already informed them on the inaccuracies concerning AEA & CAC accounts, perpetuated owing too secondary sourcing from historians/authors. There are no documents, recorders Baddeck No. I ever flew, considering a score of crashes which accrued with Baddeck No. II., as she flew in Feb., Mar., Apr., May., No. I., was scavenged for parts until her last flight at the Montreal Air Meet.

Beinn Bhreagh Items — Social Aero Club Feb. 23:— Celebration of Anniversary of First Flight Last night (Feb. 23) the Social Aero Club of Beinn Bhreagh held a meeting here (at Beinn Bhreagh, near Baddeck, Nova Scotia) to celebrate the anniversary of the first flight of a heavier than air flying machine in Canada — the successful flight of Douglas McCurdy in the aerodrome (airplane) Sliver Dart, Feb. 23, 1909, over the ice in Baddeck Bay. The Naval policy of Canada was discussed by Mr. Macfarlane, Mr. Baldwin and others.  (Int.) AGB.

Feb., 24:— Dr. Bell invited the Social Aero Club of Beinn Bhreagh to meet here last night as it was the anniversary of the first flight of a heavier-than-air flying-machine in Canada. Present — Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, Honoary President; Mr. W.E. Rudderham, Presedent; Mr. Charles C. Byrnes, Treasurer; Mr. J.A.D. McCurdy, Secretary pro-tem; Mr. M. McFarlane; Mr. Percy Manchester; Mr. John G. Davidson; Mr. Gardiner G. Hubbard; Mr. F.W. Baldwin; Mr. Karl Sparlings: Mr. J. McIver; Mr. John McLean. After the usual preliminaries the President said that the debate, which was to have taken place at the last meeting, had been postpone and would be on that night. The subject of the debate was — “Whether Canada should or should not build a navy in Canada.”

Feb., 24:— Douglas McCurdy proposes to try a flight in of aerodrome (airplane) Baddeck No. 2 tomorrow (Feb. 25) to test out the endurance of the engine with its new spark plugs.

C.A.C. First Flights of 1910 Flying Around Baddeck Bay, Nova Scotia Feb. 25th. Feb. 25:— The drome (airplane) Baddeck No. 2 was taken out upon the ice on Baddeck Bay this morning. Mr. Baldwin is here and as I was not present during the tests, I will ask him to dictate an account of what happened. (Int.) A.G.B.

 

*Shipped to Montreal in June 1910 to take part in the Montreal Air Meet, the Baddeck No. 1 was flown by McCurdy who crashed on 30 June 1910. Baddeck No. 1 was irreparably damaged, being replaced in flight testing by the Baddeck No. 2. With mostly McCurdy at the controls, Baddeck No. 2 had a total of 60 flights, 36 at Bentick Farm and 24 off the ice, with testing continuing into November 1910. Dolena MacKay MacLeod, age 23, flew as a passenger with Casey Baldwin on one of those flights over Bentick Farm, becoming the first female air passenger in Canada.[7] Skaarup 2009, p. 4.

It was Baddeck No. II., crated and railed to Montreal, crashed and seriously damaged shipped back to B.B. estate, Near Baddeck, without money, parts, and the Bell’s, Baldwin’s on a world tour, McCurdy signed a contract with Curtiss’ Flying Circus. While the total of flights provided by Skaarup 2009, p. 4, is problematic, considering you had starts, failed attempts, short-hops/flights and flights, is not supported with prime source documents. With tests continuing into November 1910, is erroneous, C.A.C. by June 1910 faded away over the horizon, and its members thousands of miles from Beinn Bhreagh estate, Near Baddeck.

Boston Evening Transcript Nov. 3, 1910. — TO LAUNCH PLANE FROM SHIP — Interesting Experiment to Be Tried on Saturday by McCurdy in a Curtiss Biplane — First Aeroplane Mail. — Washington, Nov. 3:— Official sanction was given today by the Government for the transmission of Unite State mails by aeroplane for the first time in history. Permission was granted by Postmaster General Hitchcock, for J.A.D. McCurdy to carry the United States mails in this manner from the out-going transatlantic liner Kaiserin Auguste Victoria to New York next Saturday, when that vessel is fifty miles at sea. The mail pouch which McCurdy will carry from the liner to the New York Post Office will contain letters from passengers of the steamship for transmission to various parts of the world. The only condition imposed by the postmaster general on this first sanctioned transmission by aeroplane of the United Sates mails is to be carried by aeroplane. In imposing this condition the Government is relieved of all responsibility in case the letters are lost while in transit from the steamship to the New York Post Office.

Spañard

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