PBA: All my posts are first drafts always leave ample wiggle and legroom, in discarding my rubbish, while cleansing the narrative. In past Blogs, study papers after uncovering or remembering I’ve deleted 10, 30, 50, over 100 pages, restructuring the narrative adding clarity.
In 4 weeks the link, title etc., will be permanently deleted a new version will be created.
MY LT crashed many moons ago, lost many files especially Janneys service records, not being 100% on the exact content I omitted them from the study paper; can’t Bla Bla without archive records supporting the narrative. I’ve been searching for years contacted several LAC departments requesting Janneys records, all replied, not aware of the existence. I contacted savants with credentials in Canadian aviation all clueless, not until I posted a thread on British War Forums, where one of It’s members…nieuport11… provided LAC’s link to Janney’s original manipulated records.
Concerning Janneys CEF FC Service Records…..
- Page 1. Regt. No. Capt. Unit Surplus Officer…No mention of CAC or he was an Aviator. The stamp, Canadian Forces, see left bottom page -1-23, date.
- Page 2. Date of Service 22nd Sept 1914…Surplus officer dated 30th Mar. 1922.
- Page 3. Received by hand 23, 4, 1927 by and signed E.L. Janney.
- Page 4. Is the Struck of Strength, 8-1-1915 and covered in my study paper.
- Page 6. Militia Service Statement of Service was complied many moons after the fact 22nd June, 1936…Note No. 8 Janney does not appear to ever have been gazetted, (No Attestation Papers), in the Canadian Militia. That’s when Canadian Aviation Corps first print, for the exception of the stamped Valcartier Camp requesting $5000,00 cashiers check from Militia coffers, which required paper working, ironically in Janney’s handwriting.
I forgot about Wise 1980/Janney CAC account, not aware it was in an old backup disc prior to the crash, until an other member all rattled I excluded a championed traditionalist stating all this work is not relevant.
Link to DHH 2, Wise: Canadian Airmen and the First World War Part I through 15 all on PDF, book in full for those interested. http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhh-dhp/pub/boo-bro/can-ww1/index-eng.asp
Canada’s National Defence Directorate of History and Heritage (DHH); is mandated to preserve and communicate Canada’s military history and foster pride in Canadian military heritage. DHH 2, 1938 narrative compared too 1962 – 64, omitting vital information, embellishing the account as fallows: —
DHH. 2, OH The Canadian Forces In The Great War 1914-19 Vol. I. 1938. The First Contingent At Valcartier: Chapter II p.69 as fallows: — Two other special units associated with the Contingent must also be mentioned here—not because of their strength, as their combined total personnel never exceeded ten, but because both were innovations in the Canadian forces. The first of these, although not regularly established by orders, may be considered as the forerunner of a larger organization which came into being later. In August the Minister had offered to send six aviators with the Contingent, and Lord Kitchener had agreed; early in September the Minister accepted the services of two Ontario-born aviators, “understood to be accomplished and experienced,” and one of them was “appointed provisional Commander of the Canadian Aviation Corps”; but the number remained at two, and the corps itself was not authorized. Although never attested in the C.E.F., the two aviators proceeded to England with the Contingent to qualify for the Royal Flying Corps. Their equipment consisted of “one Burgess-Dunne biplane,” flown from the factory at Marblehead, Mass., to Valcartier, and then crated to England, but never again assembled. Of the two aviators one returned to civil life in Canada, January 1915; the other, Lieut. W.F. Sharpe, after undergoing instructional flying in France—the first Canadian aviator to fly there—was killed on 4th February 1915, on his first solo flight in England while attached to the R.F.C.
DHH 2, OH CEF FWW 1914-19, 1964: — (There was no air force; in 1909, the year of the first aeroplane flight in Canada, the Militia Council had witnessed demonstration flights at Petawawa, but a very limited Canadian military flying service was not organised until after war broke out)……….. On 25 August 1914 Colonel Sam Hughes cabled Lord Kitchener an offered to send aviators with the First Contingent. Kitchener asked for six, but only two could be provided. They were organized into a short-lived provisional “Canadian Aviation Corps” at Valcartier, and with one aeroplane, purchased in the United States, they accompanied the First Contingent to England. One aviator almost immediately returned to civil life in Canada. The other, Lieutenant W.F. Sharpe, underwent instructional training in France, but was killed on 4 February 1915 while making his first solo flight in England. Their American aircraft never left the ground.
Considering both narratives if C.A.C. was not authorised, and its members attested like C.E.F., no one could be appointed provisional Commander with a Captain’s commission, in a Canadian ‘provisional’ phantom aviation corps. Document of provisional unites listed, a flying corps is nonexistent in the first place; “the two aviators proceeded to England with the Contingent to qualify for the Royal Flying Corps.” True; on S.S. Athenia ships manifest she transported the hydroplane, while the S.S. Franconia including “two aviators and one mechanic” aboard, not as a flying unit, “attached to the headquarter staff.” Therefore the latter implies, C.-in-C., “Uncle Sam” Hughes’ after offering six, only mustered two, showing good form contributed the hydroplane, after being manipulated by Janney. “Lord Kitchener had agreed; early in September accepted the services of two aviators, to qualify for the RFC,” while Hughes’ bluntly advises Alderson: “Janney and Sharpe were sent to join the Royal Flying Corps,” “not intended to organise a flight unit.” Outspoken Hughes, in official bio, 1914-15 documents, press, etc., personally never mentions, he authorised CAC and made one aviator or Janney its provisional commander with the rank of Captain, nor will documents etc., ever surface.
- Owing D.H.H. 2., misleading, hazy, and vague accounts, “fostering pride in Canadian military heritage,” the questions too ask:—
- What year was Canada’s first authorised Air Corps, Sept. 1914, or Sept. 1918?
- Was the CAC, an officially authorised unit, and where’s the Documents’ supporting the facts?
- In the Sessional Paper 40, etc., CAC are not recorded, All, provisional contributions and “special units” are?
- Janney & Sharpe, “understood to be accomplished and experienced aviators,” by hum?
- The hydroplane was $5000, or $7500usf., + expenses, a portion pocketed by Janney?
- Landing at Sorel for fuel, Janney and C. Webster are arrested by Canada Customs?
- The BD-1B biplane delayed by the arrest, and engine problems for 7 days?
- Accounts claim delayed 3 days for repairs, Québec City is 1hr by air?
- Date the biplane arrived and landed on St. Lawrence River at Québec City docks?
- The status quo account on the biplane being disassembled, crated, loaded on the ship?
- Time, date SS Athenia left dock drifted and anchored, Master received sealed orders?
- While at Gaspe Bay, when was the SS Athenia authorised to set steam for Plymouth?
- Mainstream misleading recycled account, CAC boarded and set sail on SS Athenia?
- Halliday: Did Hughes forget, given up on it, or Kitchener approves aviators for RFC?
- “Uncle Sam” Hughes’ advises Alderson: “Janney and Sharpe, were sent to join the Royal Flying Corps,” with no military rank or pay?
- D.M.D. cables Alderson, “Janney and Sharpe not intended to organise a flight unit”?
- The folklore surrounding CAC, originates from Janney while in England and Canada?
- C.A.C. or C. Flying C. was a generic name used by press, etc., from 1915 – 1917?
- The name CAC first surfaces in The Globe, Tue., Dec., 1, 1914, pg. 9, col. 1?
- The Globe:–‘A Canadian aviation corps,’ is being organized at Salisbury Plain, and will be attached to the Canadian army when it leaves for the front?
- Goes MIA on two separate occasions while at Salisbury Plain, totalling ca 6 weeks?
- Janney’s sous-fonds, etc., cost $116,679.25 the commander states $120,000?
- Lt.-Gen. E.A.H. Alderson, foiled Janney’s self appointed rank and deceptive, scheme?
- Uniformed as a British major, aviator, while in England, America and Canada?
- DHH 2, CEF OH 1938-64; “and one of them was appointed provisional Commander of the Canadian Aviation Corps.” (Why is Janney not mentioned, Lieut. W. F. Sharpe is)?
- The year Janney’s Canadian Aviation Corps (CAC), historian/author narrative surfaces?
- Underhanded Janney, foresaw financial gains during the roots of Canadian aviation?
- Lt.-Col. Cull arranged Janney’s sub-lieut., commission in the Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve?
- The Canadian flying corps seeds are rooted with the Royal Flying Corps, Canada, Dec., 1916, though officially an Imperial unit?
- E.L. Janney insured his legacy as a Canadian military pioneer in aviation history?
With way too many questions up for grabs in the Janney, CAC saga, I’ll add just one more: —
- If ‘Canadian Aviation Corps’ was raised, organised, authorised, styled while in Valcartier Camp, at Salisbury Plain, Janney claims the ‘Canadian Flying Corps’ was not yet established, on May 1915 to a correspondent.
The narrative on Canada’s aviation corps first bearings, are located all over the map, at times cloudy and misleading, depending on historian/author accounts, throughout past decades in historical literature. According too mainstream recycled narrative on Canada’s roots of an Air Force, the majority, 75% claim, extend to the Canadian Aviation Corps (CAC) 1914-15, “humble beginnings.” True, there’s scholars, academies etc., fully aware of this fiasco in Canadian FWW accounts, critically scrutinising the veracity of C.A.C.’s formation and Janney’s appointment by Hughes. The narrative of a “Canadian aviation corps” surfaced with Janney using the press, on 1st Dec., 1914 and supposedly 2nd Feb., 1915, according to Holliday. However on the morning of 29th Sept., 1914 on his return at Quebec City on the wharf in a brief interview too reporters without Hughes’ present: “I’m going to the front to command the aviators of the Canadian contingent,” further adding, “he’s anxious to recruit Quebec aviator J.M. Landry for the flying corps,” no mention of CAC. By 1938 D.H.H. 2, C.E.F. FWW, published, Chapter II p.69, in a small paragraph on special units associated with the Contingent: “Lord Kitchener had agreed; early in September the Minister accepted the services of two Ontario-born aviators, ‘understood to be accomplished and experienced,’ and one of them was “appointed provisional Commander of the Canadian Aviation Corps”; (omitted in 1962-64 account); “but the number remained at two, and the corps itself was not authorized. Although never attested in the C.E.F., the two aviators proceeded to England with the Contingent to qualify for the Royal Flying Corps.”
Considering Janney’s name was dismissed, while Lt. Sharpe is mentioned, DHH 2 accounts for 1938 are not sourced, nor documents supporting the CAC narrative, is problematic and certainly questionable. Furthermore, DHH 2, O.H., 1962 and 1964 sources: — Duguid, I, 73. General H.D.G. Crerar to author, 26 Jan 62, HQC 1456-1-3. Janney died in 1941, the Queens University Archives on Subfonds SF71 – creator Janney, Ernest Lloyd, 1929-30 (Creation), championed CAC., and Captain Janney. Unless there’re others that I’m not aware, Roberts, Leslie (1959): There Shall Be Wings is the earliest historian/author account I read. “A Burgess-Dunne hydroplane was purchased in the United States, shipped to Vermont and then flown to Valcartier Quebec, where it was taken apart, crated, and shipped to England. p. 7.” I’m personally aware books were published post FWW on Canadian aviators serving with the RNAS and RFC, plausible there could be earlier accounts. From early 1950s and 60s the formation of CAC was printed by the Canadian press, an introduction to “Canada’s First Military Aircraft.” The press in the 50s narrated DHH 2, O.H. F.W.W., 1938 account, by the 60s DHH 2, 1962-64 account was used, in both, including Lt. Sharpe’s death and omitting Janney’s name. Considering Aviation In Canada 1917-18, by Alan Sullivan. Lt., R.A.F., published in 1919, makes no mention. Noted in: “A History Of Canadian Naval Aviation 1918-1962,” published in 1965, p.6.: “In October 1918 part of the third contingent committee, consisting of Major Stewart, Captain Barron, Lieutenant Cameron, CEF, and Sub-Lieutenant E.L. Janney, R.N.C.V.R., set up shop in Regina to make a selection from the western applicants recruiting for the R.C.N.A.S.
late 1990s written by Don Nicks a series of articles on early Canadian aviation for North Bay and Moose Jaw base newspapers, covering CAC and Janney’s exploits. Nicks’ article certainly questionable, “Capt Janney flew the aircraft back to Canada, the aircraft was crated for shipping, and the CAC sailed on.” In Sorel, Quebec, Canada Customs detained both, impounding the biplane, later both were released; is a factual account. Legion Magazine: — July 1, 2004 by Hugh A. Halliday, Air Force, Part 4: — “A High Flyer, Indeed,” was published, and considered the benchmark on Capt. E.L. Janney’s CAC saga. It’s a shame on sourcing newspapers avoiding interoperation issues, the complete original columns are not provided, just author’s snippets. Per say: “On Feb. 3, 1915, the Halifax Morning Chronicle, under the headline Canadian Air Man Returns From The Front. Mentions CAC, omitted all references to Sharpe and Farr.” Holliday states’ printed by other Canadian press, conducted a comprehensive search and still looking, considering CAC was used by The Globe 1st Dec., 1914, seriously question if Janney styled it as Canadian Aviation Corps. The afternoon, 29th Sept., 1914 on the wharf while being questioned by a correspondent, makes no mention of a flying unit formation styled as CAC. However Janney reported at Québec City docks, “going to the front to command the aviators of the Canadian contingent.” On 5th Feb., 1915, aviator squadron commander in the Canadian detachment, of the of the British Royal Flying Corps, by the 2nd Mar., Janney stated he served with the British Imperial Aeroplane Corps in Belgium, while on 1st April, his anecdote changes; served with the Royal Flying Corps and by May: When the contingent arrived at Salisbury Plain the officer (Janney) was still attached to headquarters. He, according to himself, was to be in command of the ‘Canadian flying corps’ which was about to be established.
C.-in-C., -Col. Samuel Hughes’ although critical of militia aviation August 1914: — “Aviation is of no value in war, I do not propose to tie the government up financially to such a ridiculous scheme.” Surprisingly offered aviators to the “Secretary of State for War,” Lord Kitchener 25th Aug., 1914, responded on the 31st, Britannia would accept 6 experienced aviators at the present, with more too follow if needed. Hughes attempts proved fruitless, as only a few applicants were interested, sadly fell short on British requirements. Mustered a mire two individuals, although one was a licensed aviator, the other was a “chin-wagging high flyer.” Furthermore, “did approve, (Hughes) the formation of a small unit accompany the Canadian Expeditionary Force to England,” is not factual. Accounts state, the CAC was authorised on 16th Sept. 1914, consisting of two pilots and one mechanic, while the aeroplane needed to be purchased. Ernest Lloyd Janney, born 16th Jun, 1893, Galt, Ontario, laboured as a motor mechanic operating a garage, incomprehensively was picked. William F.N. Sharpe of Prescott, Ontario, travel to Californian by 1913 instructed by Glenn H. Curtiss as an aviator, and accomplished his schooling. Sharpe was a certified aviator by January 1914, prior to the outbreak of war only four Canadians were licensed, by the Aero Club of America as ‘pilots.’ Harry A. Farr of West Vancouver, British Columbia was chosen as the biplane mechanic; “understood to be accomplished and experienced.” The RCAF Museum, DHH, etc., status quo narrative: E.L. Janney, (at the time 21 years old) or one was appointed “Provisional Commander,” commissioned the rank of Captain, authorised to spend not more then $5,000 for an aeroplane. “Capt. Janney acquired a biplane from the Burgess-Dunne Company in Massachusetts, delivered to Quebec City, arriving on 30th Sept., or 1st Oct.,” according too accounts. Hastily loaded onboard SS Athenia and crated, CAC sailed over the pond. The biplane arrived, landed, afternoon of the 29th, stored over night and craned the next day onboard Athena’s deck. On arrival at Plymouth the biplane was unloaded, trucked to Salisbury Plain where CEF was out in the cold, damp British climate, the BD-1B biplane as the months passed scavenged for scrap, rusted and deteriorated, a few parts were only located, eventually written off as, “worthless junk”: Supposedly with a new engine and parts, tallying an additional $2,500us. Accounts claim by “7th May, 1915 the Canadian Aviation Corps had ceased to exist and this ended the short life of Canada’s first military aviation force.” Or other narratives claim they “were disbanded by Hughes on 7th May 1915.”
According too all the bread crumbs I fallowed:— Vit – ON – Birth Registration, birth certificate 35267 (1893), Ernest Lloyd Janney, Date of Birth: 16 Jun 1893, Gender: Male, Birth County: Waterloo, Father’s Name: Wm W Janney, Saw maker of Galt, Mother’s Name: Elizabeth Friend. Source: http://www.ancesty.ca Digital Images of Birth Certificates Ontario, Canada Birth, 1869-1909. At 21 years of age E.L. Janney worked as a motor mechanic operating an automobile repair garage in Galt, in the township of North Dumfries part of the Waterloo County, Ontario. A self-proclaimed aviator for sometime he wasn’t taken seriously, ridiculed by Galt’s contemptible residents, undeterred by what he believed as their denigration. On 12th September on his own initiative and expense, without having confronted Hughes, traveled to the USA searching for a plane, and turned down by several companies. His quest materialised in Marblehead, Massachusetts, however D-B was reluctant at first with only one plane, eventually persuaded by Janney’s, “chin-waging.” A decisive, tenacious individual, if one considers searching for a built aeroplane, quickly purchased, delivered from American within two weeks till departure date of C.E.F., FC.
Canadian Militia aviator’s at this point was inconceivable, in repartee within the ranks at Valcartier and spread throughout the Dominions Militia, on Hughes selecting Janney as an aviator, ‘designated’ to the RFC. On 16th Sept., Lt.-Col. A.J. Oliver CO of the 29th Regiment, Galt, well acquainted with Janney got wind on his appointment, rattled by it, despatched a critical letter of concern to the assistant Adj.-Gen. “1st Divisional Area, Western Ontario H.Q. London.” This letter was sent to DMD HQ: “It is the impression of a great many people here in Galt, to which city this party belongs, that absolutely no reliance should be placed in him in any way, shape or form and his statements in connection with flying have always been taken as a joke. He is a high flyer all right, but the meaning of the term is entirely different from that normally applied to an aviator.” Janney back in Canada overwhelmingly convinced Hughes, handing over a $5,000 cashiers check for the aeroplane, and pocket money for expenses, hastily entrained for the USA as arrangements were made on his return to Canada, while crossing the boarder. Under the war measures act the C.-in-C., Lt.-Col. Samuel Hughes banned flying over Canada without Department Militia Defence (DMD), authority. MHQ despatched cables too regional HQ and Police Forces: “Arrangements are being made for an aviator named E.L. Janney to fly into Canada from the United States; and I am to request, should he come your way, that you offer him no hindrance.” This prompted the Dominion Police Commissioner, A.P. Sherwood annoyed by the message replied: “If Mr. Janney does not run into any trouble up above, I do not think he will be interfered with below.” (You’ll notice the Captain rank is omitted).
Janney purchased a Burgess-Dunne biplane, “built with parts salvaged from BD-1A crash, renamed, etc., used for demos, and training aviators,” for $5000.00. According to B-D document, in dire need of engine maintenance after allotted running hours expired. After a brief lube job, was crated and shipped by rail to Isle La Motte, on Lake Chaplain in Vermont, and reassembled. On 21st Sept., the biplane took off, with Clifford Lawrence Webster a Burgess test pilot at the controls, and Janney seated in the rear, supposedly flew parts of the rout, the reality, “a passenger along for a joy ride.” While in flight over Québec they landed for fuel at Sorel, arrested and after a phone call “immediately realised,” took off East of Trois-Rivières, the engine stuttered prompting Webster to force-land at, de Chaillons. The company was cabled, hastily sent a new engine, parts and mechanic by train, other accounts adding: “With a complementary Burgess-Dunne invoice for the sum of $2,500us for the repair.” Claims delayed for 3, although the evidence supports 7 days with a new engine, Tuesday 29th nearing noon, the hydroplane took-off and by that afternoon arrived over Québec City, landed on St. Lawrence River. The historical “Clique du Château” concludes on their arrest by Customs at Sorel, “some what problematic, owing to the existence of any published document supporting the fact.” Over two decades ago I dusted off a document, and several years ago, providing credence, they were arrested at Sorel, according too three newspaper columns, 22nd, 30th of 1914 and May, 1915.
Halliday 2004: — “Government documents do not mention this episode, nor did Webster in a letter he wrote at the time.”
Au contraire, there are two uninfluenced published accounts and one by Janney’s meddling in the narrative, while on the Quebec wharf questioned by correspondents, Webster attended to the hydroplane. The Montreal Gazette, on Tuesday 22nd Sept., 1914 front page, special to the Gazette staff correspondent, under the header column: “Whole Force At Valcartier Will Be Sent; near the bottom under War Aviator Arrested, Telephones Col. Hughes to Obtain Release. “The Minister of Militia, received word that E.L. Janney….,the aviator who was flying from Massachusetts to Valcartier Camp, was arrested by Canadian customs officers this morning at Sorel, Quebec. The aviator made the descent at Sorel for gasoline and was promptly marched to the lockup. Latter he was permitted to telephone Col. Sam Hughes and orders were at one given for his release.” (Without Janney’s influenced narrative, the rank of Captain is omitted).
The correspondent of the Montreal Daily Mail, was influenced by Janney’s half truth anecdote, 30th:— Quebec 29th Sept. 1914: —Considerable excitement was caused hear early this afternoon by the arrival of an hydro-aeroplane, flying the Canadian flag, which circled around the city several times, and finally landing on the river near the Canadian Steamship lines’ wharf, where the aviator disembarked. He turned out to be Captain E.L. Janney, who had just come from St. Jean de Chaillons, about 45 miles from Quebec, where he had been forced to stop on his way from Sorel on account of engine trouble. He covered this distance in 40 minutes……Was held up at Sorel by the authorities, but was realised from that place this morning, and would have been in Quebec several hours earlier had his engine not given trouble. He was met by Col. the Hon. Sam Hughes on his arrival here and despaired through the crowed which blackened the wharves to get a tug to tow his machine inside the breakwater. The third account surfaces in The Toronto World, 6th May 1915, front page column during the public inquiry, denunciation of Janney’s military aviation credentials, and exploits during the war. Many were outraged, a dishonour to Canadian, British officers, impersonation and daily attire, uniformed as a British aviator. “At Sorel his machine broke down and he was arrested, the authorities in that town probably never before having seen an aeroplane, and at that time, the country was practically in a state of war. About two days before the boats left Quebec the aviator arrived accompanied by another airmen named Webster. It has been said that Webster handled the machine and Captain Janney was merely a passenger. Captain Janney was attached to the headquarter staff, and went to England on the steamer Franconia, one of the convoys. When the contingent arrived at Salisbury Plain the officer was still attached to headquarters. He, according to himself, was to be in command of the ‘Canadian flying corps’ which was about to be established.”
The delay prompted Janney’s original plan of a glorious return, fly with the Canadian flag over CEF troops cheering as he landed at Valcartier was scuttled; ordered by Hughes to “join CEF at Québec City.” The hydroplane was stored overnight at city docks; the next morning with Webster at the controls approached, ship side, and hoisted from the water onboard SS Athenia, 30th September 1914, as deck cargo. According to Halliday, Janney telegraphed some auto mechanics in Galt, Ontario, ordering them to report to him for service, however they requested if he had authority. If factual, Janney wasn’t authorised or realistic on time permitted with just one day prior to departure, settled with just one mechanic, H.A. Farr. The SS Athenia with biplane attached with ropes as deck cargo, was not crated, authorised as 23rd ship leaving the docks on 30th Sept., at 5.00 pm. While the SS Franconia manifest with 2,130 all ranks including “two aviators and one mechanic” aboard, was the 27th ordered ready to sail on 1st Oct., at 12.50 am from Québec City docks. Reaching their anchorages at Gaspé Bay the convoy assembled in three columns, Z, Y, X, the Athenia and Franconia were in column Y. Authorised to set steam for England at 2.30, raise anchor at 3.00 on Saturday, 3rd Oct., HMS Charybdis signalled to the troop ships: “Have cables hove short. All ships in column Z will raise anchor at 3 pm, and proceed, keeping column formation, steaming at 9 knots following leading cruiser Eclipse.” The SS Franconia arrived and unloaded 15-16th Oct. at Plymouth, the SS Athenia arriving on 17th October 1914.
Janney realised the aeroplane was damaged nor repairable, went MIA for several weeks, “travelling about Britain learning what he could about aviation,” resurfacing on 6th, Nov., 1914 when he presented a proposal for a “Canadian aviation corps,” to Lt.-Gen. E.A.H. Alderson (GOC), General Officer Commanding the Canadian Corps. “Janney recommended a unit with four airplanes, seven officers, seven sergeants and 32 mechanics. He calculated the cost for one year as totalling $116,679.25.” Lt.-Gen. Alderson rattled by Janney’s requests, as his persuasive claims on his appointment and credentials, figured something was afoot, hastily dispatched a cable to the Department of Militia and Defence on 18th, Nov., 1914: “Two individuals—Janney and Sharpe—have accompanied Canadian Headquarters from Canada claiming to be aviators authorised by (the) minister, in Militia Order 463 (officers postings to CEF). Please cable instructions as to their status pay and whether large expense necessary to organize an efficient unit of one flight is authorized.” Janney with a few aces up his sleeves, conjuring Canadian public support contacted the Globe, other press: The Globe, Toronto: “Ottawa. Nov. 30th 1914– ‘A Canadian aviation corps,’ is being organized at Salisbury Plain.
The Globe, Toronto, “Aviation Corps Being Organized at Salisbury,” Tuesday, December 1, 1914, pg. 9, col. 1. — “Ottawa. Nov. 30th – ‘A Canadian aviation corps,’ is being organized at Salisbury Plain, and will be attached to the Canadian army when it leaves for the front. Negotiations have been in progress between Canada and the British War Office for some time, and it has now been decided to form a squadron of twelve aeroplanes. The squadron will be in command of Captain Janney of Galt, Ontario, an experienced aviator. Captain Janney flew from Massachusetts to Valcartier camp to join the first contingent. There are two other Canadian aviators, M. Sharpe and Harry A. Farr. For the remaining posts there are no less than 469 applicants among Canadian soldiers at Salisbury Plain who want to join the aviation corps. The British type of flying machine which has proved so successful along the fighting line in France and Belgium, has been adopted, and orders for the building of twelve have been placed, it is understood, by the Canadian government in England. The Canadian airmen will likely train, according to news received at Ottawa, at Montrose, Scotland, which is one of the British aviation centres.” http://www.royalmontrealregiment.com/canadian-aviation-corps-formed-in-1914/
Canadian Militia headquarters bewilder by Gen. Alderon’s request, replied: Janney and Sharpe had been sent over with CEF on the understanding they would join the Royal Flying Corps as aviators: “Not intended to organize a flight unit.” According too accounts, on May 1915 Farr a “civilian” was supposedly discharged from CAC, however by February 1917 he enlisted with the RFC, never flew in combat. Sharpe an American certified aviator was requested to enroll in a British civilian flying school, on his preliminary accomplishment, furthered schooled in the outskirts of Paris and Lyon: Accounts adding, further trained in France, and flew several sorties over enemy lines. The RFC officially commissioned Sharpe, lieutenant on, 3rd Feb., 1915, designated to a reserve No. 3 sqn., sadly on the 4th, at Shoreham in a new aircraft on his first solo training flight the aeroplane accidentally crashed and died. Repatriated back to Canada, Prescott on 22nd March 1915 for burial, Lt. Sharpe RFC is known as the first Canadian aerial casualty during the FWW.
By early December 1914, although struck-off camp roll; ‘Tony’ supposedly resigned his self appointed commission, set steam for Canada in January 1915. Registered as Captain E.L. Janney and uniformed as a military RFC aviator, sailed from Liverpool, England onboard the SS Zeeland, arriving at Halifax Nova Scotia, on 2nd Feb., 1915. A brief stop over, by the 3rd the Halifax Morning Chronicle printed Janney’s erroneous aviation war exploits, appearing in some newspapers across Canada with the header, “Canadian Air Man Returns From The Front,” according to Legion Magazine, Halliday 2004. Janney’s questionable anecdote; “included a new friend who had accompanied him to Canada, ‘Lieutenant’ Bernard Hale.” Familiar with his manipulative, dishonest demeanour towards correspondents, although I found Janney, Hale is not registered on the same vessel, sailing from London. The index to alien arrivals at Canada Atlantic and Pacific port, a Lieutenant Bernard Hale birth ca.1890 entered in 1915 via US. By May plausible he was in Canada, on 5th April, Hale “with the RFC, who accompanied Janney to the front, is now on the way to Canada,” was printed in the Canadian and American press. Operated the flying school at Toronto, and by 16th June 1915, registered as Bernard Hale embarks SS Sicilian at Montreal, destination London England. Janney the degenerate impersonator, boarded the Zeeland setting steam to Portland Main, arriving on the 4th Feb., 1915, disembarked and hastily entrained, destination, locate Hughes’. By the 5th he was at Ottawa, printed in The Toronto World 7th via a Canadian Press Despatch: — “Captain Ernest Janney the commander of the Canadian detachment of the British Royal Flying Corps, arrived from England to consult with the militia department on aviation matters.”
The 1915 Call’s For the Organisation of a Militia, Canadian Aviation/Flying Corps: —
The Toronto Daily Star, 12th February, 1915: — 150 Men To Be Employed to Build Biplanes for Military Purposes Pilot to Be Trained Here for the Canadian Contingent of British Army.“Mr. J.A.D. McCurdy…has formed a company which will be in operation almost at once to manufacture these machines. Mr. McCurdy has been in close touch with Glen Curtiss…one of the most prominent of aeroplane builders in the States, and the machines which will be constructed will be of the standard Curtiss types…” “Along with construction, arrangements will be made to train pilots to handle the machines…”
The Toronto Star, Friday 12th February 1915: — Aeroplane Factory To Be Located Here. — J.A.D McCurdy Chief. — Pilots to Be Trained here for the Canadian Contingent of British Army. Pilots To Be Trained. — “Both the military and naval types will be constructed, and as soon as a number are ready they will be tested on the bay or out on the lake. Along with the construction arrangements will be made to train pilots to handle the machines, and when the pilots are considered competent they will be licensed and will then be ready to undertake military duties.”
On 1st-2nd March he surfaced in the US., supposedly under Canadian Militia orders, visiting the Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Manufacture & Aviation School, looking over a new “military tractor,” (engine located in front of the pilot), manufactured by Thomas. Claiming to be a major, aviator, previously served with the British Imperial Aeroplane Corps, on sick leave discharge, recovering from his wounds while flying over Belgium. Janney returned to Canada applied with the ‘Militia Department’ requesting permission to operate a fly school. The 29th March the press printed “Capt. L. Janney expects machine from England within 10 days,” approved in April 1915 opened on the 4th, North Toronto Lawrence Park, without any connection or responsibilities to the Dominion’s Militia. In addition the Edgecombe estate stretching over 200 acres, was placed on disposal of the ‘Janney Aviation School,’ while Halliday: Signing himself as “Major” and “Officer Commanding, Canadian Flying Corps.” For the first three month period found no evidence CFC was used, also styled as North Toronto Aviation School. Printed in the press, school’s OC, was Captain Janney in partnership with Lieutenant Bernard Hale as the adjutant operated the flying school. By 5th April Hale was on his way to Canada, considering Halliday 2004 suggestion, couldn’t possibly sailed from London or be with Janney at Nova Scotia 2nd February. Oddly a Lieut. Harley G. Smith, surfaces in New York on 1st April, by the 3rd, the school’s organisation was published in Canadian and American press: “Dominion Government Opens Aviation School at Toronto, the first in Canada.” Claiming both aviators, Janney and Smith of the Royal Flying Corps after a brief stay in the war zone arrived from England. On the 5th The Ottawa Evening Citizen; Toronto April 4: — Aviation School Opens In Toronto. Capt. Janney Will Enroll Pupils for Course.
Many have questioned; the evidence reviles Hale was a certified aviator, while Smith received a certificate after the fact, certainly possessed aviation experience while operating the school.
*Lieutenant Bernard Francis Hale:—Birth 17th July 1892, although in 94 baptised at, All Saints, Leyton, Essex, England. A qualified and certified aviator: Royal Aero Club (RAC) UK, certificate number 786, Bernard Francis Hale (Farman type Biplane, Shoreham.) 18th May 1914: Announced 29th May. Partnered with Janney fly school, or known as North Toronto Flying School from Feb., till May’s inquisition, and public humiliation of Janney. Hale only arrived at Canada’s Atlantic port via the US ca mid April, by 16th June 1915 embarks SS Sicilian at Montreal destination London England. Listed in the Royal Flying Corps index, I believed commissioned Lieut., 1917, with the RNAS transferring to the RFC appears in AIR 76 officers records. There’s no archives, documents supporting Hale was commissioned or part of any military branch of the British army during the outbreak of war.
*Lieutenant Harley Gianelli Smith:—Birth 25th May 1894 at Ontario, Toronto, in the outbreak of war, commissioned in the Governor General’s Body Guard, Toronto autumn 1914. Schooled in aeronautics, The Royal Aero Club of the United Kingdome, registered under American Certificates number 362, Lieut. Harley G. (Gianelli) Smith (Wright Biplane, Write School, Dayton, Ohio). 17th Nov., 1915. Appears in the RFC lists, near the end of his training an accident prevented the completion and resigning his commission, according to the Toronto Star 3rd Sept, 1918, notice of death. Enlisted at West Sandling Camp, England 3rd Oct. 1916 with CEF Inf., 12th Reserve Battalion. Resigns his commission and joins the French Foreign Legion, 3rd Battalion, with the rank of privet serving with distinction. For his valiant fighting spirit awarded; “the Croix de Guerre with the second-highest grade a gold star, and later receiving the Medaille Militaire a mere two days before he was killed during the attack on Soissons. His mother was alone when she received the news of his death because his father, a former Italian Consul in Toronto, serving in Europe as Major with the Canadian Army Medical Corps. Smith is buried near Soissons in Vauxbuin French Military Cemetery.” Date of death 18th July 1918 at the age of 24.
On 1st April. — The New York Tribune and the 2nd The Toronto World, printed columns, prompted an eruption of public outrage and disgrace, in Canada especially Toronto, Galt, and the Militia. As the month passed many calling for Janney’s head and questioning his credentials in operating a flying school, as his outrageous claims, unfazed the doors were open for those with $500., or registration fees. While in New York ‘Tony’ purchased an old Maurice-Farham biplane laid idle for 3 years, in dire need of repairs owned by Clifford B. Harmon from that city, crated and trained back to Toronto.
The column as fallows: — British Airmen In New York On Way To Toronto —Captain Janney and Lieutenant Smith Will Train Canadian Aviators: New York, 1st April:—Two muddy cheeked young men attired in British uniforms, sat today at a luncheon table in the Aero Club of America. One was Captain E.L. Janney, a squadron commander in the Royal Flying Corps. He is fresh from the battle field. His companion Lieut. Harley G. Smith, they are in America on seven months’ leave for the purpose of training recruits for the flying corps, which soon will part of the Canadian forces. Capt. Janney looked embarrassed when the little group of civilians gathered about the tables importuned him for an account of his experiences. “I don’t know how to tell about those things,” he said. The Captain steer his coffee absently and looked into space for a long time. It seem hard for him to work up anything akin to the atmosphere of the trenches there in the club, surrounded by peaceable citizens, and with the best of viands about him. After several attempts he stumbled into his story.
His Fighting Experience: —“My actual fighting experience covered a period of nine weeks,” he said. “I was stationed with my squadron at Balleuil in France near the Belgium boarder. Most of the time it was rather small. That is to say, the percentage of the time when we were actually doing anything small. While we were at work it was thrilling enough for all of us, I fancy. The importance of the air fleets to the opposing armies cannot be adequately expressed. Directly our forces are preparing to shell the enemy’s position the airmen are sent aloft. The average altitude which we have been in habit of flying is 5000 feet. At that height, while not entirely out of rang, we did not furnish an easy mark. When we have reached a point over the trenches that were to be shelled. We would drop smoke bombs as a guide for our artillery. Up to this time the commanders have found range-finding the most vital use of the aeroplane. Reconnaissance is important but it requires little time for the airmen to keep in tough with enemies movement.” The captain told of the steel darts of the horrible effects of the dart he had seen extracted from the body of a French soldier. The French surgeons, he said, wishes to study the wound and performed a post-mortem examination on the body. It had been found the dart had penetrated the victim’s skull gone directly into his head and neck and finally logged in his stomach…….The German planes speed he said, was capable of eighty-six miles an hour it is unable to limb faster than 750 feet a minute, he declared, as against 1200 feet a minute by the British machines. Thus a advantage could be gained by rising above the tube.”
The Business which has brought them two officers to this country is the establishment of an aviation training school at Toronto. The Farman, biplanes have been shipped from England for the use by the students and Captain Janney announced that he had purchased the old Farman machine, owed by Clifford B. Harmon of this city. The school is open to civilians who desire to enlist in the flying corps of Great Britain, and those who qualify will accompany the Canadian expeditionary forces. Four months are allowed for training, in order to insure that the student will carry out his intention to enlist a fee of $500.00 will be charged for the training. This will be returned in the form of a bonus of $625.00 which will be paid by the Canadian Government when the student has qualified. The actual bonus is $375, but there is a uniform allowance of $250. It is believed that the new program is the first step toward the establishment of a Canadian flying corps, and that the government will soon appropriate at least $500,000., for that purpose. The new field is on the Lawrence Park estate, Toronto, and thirty pupils have registered.
- Captain Ernest Lloyd Janney Public Inquisition & Flogging.
On his return from New York the hounds were realised, owing the column printed by The Toronto World, deriving from the Tribune clipping sent to the newspaper by a concerned and alarmed Torontonian who knew him. Both newspapers, etc., launched an inquiry and by 6th May with all the information compiled, from reliable sources, the jig was up, critically scrutinised “chin waging Janney,” presenting the findings, asking, who is this captain Janney aviator from the Royal Flying Corps?
By middle of April the biplane was still in America, a special report to The New York Times, 16th Apr. 1915, header: Buys Harmon’s Biplane.—English Aviator Will Train Fliers for War Service. GREENWICH, April 15.—Capt. Janney of the Royal Aero Corps of England, who returned recently from active service at the front, has purchased from Clifford B. Haron a Farman biplane, equipped with a Gnome eighty horse power motor, which has lain idle here for nearly three years. Capt. Janney, Lieut. Leigh, and workmen have been busy for several days in getting the machine ready for shipment to Toronto, where Capt. Janney has an aviation school. The pupils of the school will be drilled for active service at the front.
By the 20th, when calls were issued in organising a “Canadian Flying Corps,” according to The Toronto World, this being the second time calls for a flying corps printed by the press, while “Lieut. Smith took care of military matters.” On that date Janney appointed Canadian aviator J.A.D. McCurdy, representing the British Aero Club as examiner of the newly established flying school.
The Toronto World 20th Apr., 1915. Ottawa Apr. 19:—The call issued a few days ago for volunteers for a “Canadian aviation corps” has brought forth scores of responses from young men anxious to join the service. The school is under the directed of Captain Janney, while the Canadian aviator J.A.D. McCurdy, is to represent the British Aero Club as examiner. The organization is directed by the British and not the Canadian authorities, and young men from 19 to 23 are favoured. In no case are they to be over 30. Fallowing an instructional course in Toronto, they will be taken to England and further drilled in aerial manoeuvres before going to the front.
Academics, scholars, perpetuate, Curtiss Aviation School established at the outskirts of Toronto, now Mississauga, started train pilots on 10th May 1915. Ending March Tony printed leaflets advertising the ‘Janney Aviation School,’ take off, handing them out in the US and Canada. Foreseeing the delay and surplus of the CAS, owing in April Britannia called for young Canadian men, interested in training as aviators for the (RNAS) Royal Naval Service overseas.
The Toronto Star, Friday April 23, 1915:—Toronto Aeronauts May Now Enter The Army. Over One Hundred Applications Deposit Fee of $400.00 Is Required. Canadian candidates who wish to enter the military wing of the Royal Flying Corps, are now to be enabled to do so. Arrangements have been made by Lieut.-Col. E.A. Stanton military secretary to the Duke of Connaught, for the passage to England of air pilots holding certificates granted at the Curtiss school in Toronto, and their acceptance into the British army. Heretofore all applicants have been held for the Royal Naval Flying Service and over 100 of their names are now on file at the office of the Curtis Company on Fashion avenue. Dr. John Noble will commence medial examination of aviation candidates at his office, 215 Carlton street, on Monday. Special attention will be made to the eyes. No fee will be charged. Applicants must deposit $400 on entering the flying school to over risk or injury to the $7,500 flying machines and other apparatus. Pilots will be refunded $375 of this amount by the British Admiralty on their reporting for duty in England. Naval Aviators are paid $1.10 per day, with extra pay for actual service on naval flights, according to a graded scale.
The Toronto World, 6th May 1915. — What Standing Has Janney as Flying Teacher. — Does Man Who is Conducting Aviation School Hold Credentials. — “Aeroplane Says.” Official Magazine Picks New York Interview All to Pieces. “Judge by his optimistic talk, Capt. Janney appears to hold the key to the Royal Flying Corps to be grasped by all pupils who wish to put up the sum of $500. Capt. Janney came to Toronto more than two months ago from England, and supposedly France. On reaching New York he gave an interview to a newspaperman, which was published in The New York Tribune and The Toronto World, regarding the establishment of a flying school in Toronto. His statements have since been contradicted by The Aeroplane, a British periodical devoted to aeronautics. This publication stated that Janney’s views are slightly lobsided, or words to that effect.
Lived in Galt: — Captain Janney is an aviation enthusiast. For some little time he conducted a motor garage in Galt, Ont. A few weeks after the outbreak of war he got into communication with the minister of the militia when the First Canadian Division was being mobilised in Valcartier, offering his services as an aviator. At that time he was in New Bedford, Mass. He told General Hughes that he would fly to the camp. At Sorel his machine broke down and he was arrested, the authorities in that town probably never before having seen an aeroplane, and at that time, the country was practically in a state of war. About two days before the boats left Quebec the aviator arrived companied by another airmen named Webster. It has been said that Webster handled the machine and Captain Janney was merely a passenger. Captain Janney was attached to the headquarter staff, and went to England on the steamer Franconia, one of the convoys. When the contingent arrived at Salisbury Plain the officer was still attached to headquarters. He, according to himself, was to be in command of the Canadian flying corps which was about to be established. Lieut. W.F. Sharpe of Ottawa, who was killed a few weeks later while trying out a new machine at Shoreham, and Lieut. Farr, a mechanic, were also to be in the Flying Corps.
Would Establish Corps: — For several weeks it was under stood that Captain Janney was negotiating with Ottawa with the intention of establishing a full flying corps, but, according to the commander, the department of militia balked at handing over $120.000, which would have been the expense entailed. When Ottawa refused to lay aside this amount, it was generally thought that the two Canadian aviators and mechanic would become attached to the Royal Flying Corps. Lieut. Sharpe, who was enthusiastic, and had had some experience in California and other states, was killed. Lieut. Farr may have joined the Royal Flying Corps. Captain Janney returned to Canada.
Why did Janney Return? These are the facts: — In the latter part of December or early January Capt. Janney obtained leave for a few days he said he was going to London and then France. He was away from Salisbury for several weeks, having overstayed his leave for some little time. He was net heard of at Shoreham camp, where one of the big British army flying schools is located. According to reliable information he was parading about as a staff major-one step above his own rank-and wearing the accompanying red lapels and staff badge on his service cap. British officers, it seems, could not quite swallow Janney’s flamboyant utterances and sent an enquiry to the Canadian headquarters. As a result Janney immediately returned to Salisbury. Very shortly after his name appeared in camp orders to the effect that he was cut off the strength of the force.
Official Magazine Picks New York Interview to Pieces: — The New York Tribune with a sense of being ducked by Janney, brought out the executioner prior to judgement day, Gorden Bruce. The Toronto World narrative: Professing to deal with the “chin-wagging”—one can call it by no other name—of that “Captain” Janney of whom no one in this country seems to have heard the heading of the article ran thus: “Veteran British Airman, Here to Train Canadian Recruits, Finds War Life Dull Except in Spots.” “Veteran” is good, considering that he has not flown in England, or—so far as one can gather—on the continent either, The article continuous: “Two muddy cheeked young men attired in British uniforms, sat today at a luncheon table in the Aero Club of America. One was Captain E.L. Janney, a squadron commander in the Royal Flying Corps…… ” This Janney is not even an officer of the Royal Flying Corps, and if he is still an officer in the British-Canadian service one would like to know what he was doing in uniform in a neutral country if not an embassy attache or an interned officer. He is reported to have said: “My actual fighting experience covered a period of nine weeks. I was stationed with my squadron at Balleuil in France near the Belgium boarder. Most of the time it was rather dull. That is to say, the percentage of the time when we were actually doing anything dull.” So fare as one an gather, the time when he was doing anything, except talk—if he was ever there at all—was nil. Later on said:
Aeronautics: — The American Magazine of Aerial Locomotion Vol. XVI. No.7. June 15, 1915. — CURTISS PLANT RUSHED. — “Tony” Janney is now associated with the Curtiss Aeroplanes & Motors, Ltd., in Toronto, Can., in the construction and operation of, various machines which they are building for various governments. It is impossible to give any details as to their construction, horsepower or requirements. To this point the various governments have especially asked the manufacturers to pay strict attention. The largest training school, both land and water, which has ever existed on this continent is in operation. There are now thirty-eight students enrolled to date, all of whom have been passed and accepted by the British Admiralty or the British Army through their representatives at Ottawa. There is a waiting list of approximately six or seven hundred. J.A.D. McCurdy is managing director of the Curtiss Aeroplanes & Motors, Ltd.
Aeronautics: — The American Magazine of Aerial Locomotion Vol. XVII. No.1. July 15, 1915. — CURTISS BUILDING GIANT AEROPLANES FOR ALLIES. — The Curtiss Aeroplanes and Motors, Ltd., of Toronto, is or is not building giant aeroplanes capable of flying hundreds of miles with scores of passengers or tons of explosives. Charles M. Manly, however, is at the above plant acting as advisor in the employ of the British Government. That is “known. That the C.A. & M., Ltd., is doing an unlimited amount of work in rush time may also be stated as an incontrovertible fact. J.A.D. McCurdy is director and “Tony” Janney is there. There is also being operated the largest aviation school on this continent, with an enrollment to date nearly eighty pupils. Fifty are receiving actual flying instructions. Three flying boats and three land machines are being used for this purpose. Several pupils have qualified for their pilot certificates and they are leaving for England in a few days where they will complete their training at the Central Flying School. That’s so much. But as to the special machines building, there are strict instructions from the Government concerned to impart nothing. Nothing is apparently being imparted regarding the big machine for Russia with two 160 H. P. motors.
Janney self-appointed rank of major and Hale uniformed as British military aviators; their business venture hit turbulence hastily crash landed in the latter of 1915. Questionable evidence suggests by 1916 he was in the USA, owing too his American connections, and Burgess-Dunnee manufacturing biplanes for the American Navel Militia. Signing of the American Naval Appropriations Bill on 29th August, 1916, provided $3,500,000 for aviation authorising the organisation of a naval flying corps, after some heated debate $5,000,000 was allotted, the corps never materialised. The state of New Jersey official naval militia was the New Jersey Naval Militia (NJNM), post Federal Naval Reserve Law of 1916, redesignated the Naval Militia of New Jersey, by November two planes were on loan to the NMNJ. Janney offered assistance to the Jersey naval militia, accepted his proposal on organising the naval flying corps take off. Witnessing and informed on the amount of $ spent by the American Militia on aviation by 1917 war footing, registered the Janney Aircraft Company in Michigan, establishing the company and residence in Munro.
By 1918 with one plane built, the company in shambles, without records registered, received a US “World War” draft registration card, compliments of Uncle Sam Wants You, and hastily moved back to Canada, Toronto, by May 1918. Accounts claim on Janney’s return to Canada, he requested a commission with CEF, and was denied. The documents support: Undeterred, got wind the Royal Canadian Naval Air Service was being organised, contacting Lieut.-Col. J.T. Cull of the Royal Air Force, in persuasion, Janney receive an officers commission in the Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve. On October 1918 Sub.-Lt. E.L. Janney, RNCVR, part of the third contingent committee, recruiting for the RCNAS, set up shop in Regina to make a selection from western applicants. The corps ceased operations in December 1918, still retained his Sub-Lieut., commission until January 1919. “The Canadian Air Force officially formed on 19th September 1918, however, the squadrons were not ready to fight until after the armistice in late November.”
Cemetery – Manitoba, Winnipeg – Brookside: “Sub-Lieutenant Ernest L. Janney, RCNVR, 1893-1941-Lest We Forget.” Should say, “Lets Forget.”